教育Essay写作:Exploration of Learning Theories

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本文是教育专业的留学生Essay范例,题目是“Exploration of Learning Theories(学习理论的探索)”,我们如何学习的想法可以用许多不同的方式来描述。安德鲁·波拉德将学习描述为“获得、理解、应用和扩展知识、概念、技能和态度的过程”。孩子们也会发现他们对自己、对彼此以及对学习本身的感觉。因此,学习部分是认知的,部分是社会和情感的。”因此,一个反思的专业人员必须专注于这些主要问题,通过关注学生在基于课程的任务中的表现,并在长期发展每个孩子的能力进步作为一个成功的学习者。教师的另一个重要方面是正确理解学习过程的能力,因为这应该使专业人员知道如何最好地让学生参与学习体验。
The idea of how we learn can be described in a multitude of different ways. Andrew Pollard describes learning “as the process by which knowledge, concepts, skills and attitudes are acquired, understood, applied and extended. Children also discover their feeling towards themselves, towards each other and towards learning itself. Learning is thus partly a cognitive, partly social and affective.” Therefore a reflective professional must concentrate on these major concerns by focusing on pupil performance within curriculum based tasks and in the long term developing each child’s ability to progress as a successful learner. Another important aspect for the teacher is the ability to properly understand the process of learning, as this should enable the professional to know best how to engage pupils in the learning experience.
 
This idea of learning is not new and has been around since the beginning of mankind, be that the passing on knowledge of fire making to the learning of basic language within early man. It is only in more recent times that scholars have attempted to create theories which describe this act that most people carry out without really thinking about. Some of these theories will be looked at in this piece, however it is important to note that the idea of one theory that fits all individuals is in its self a misnomer, as people and the world they live in change faster than these theories can keep up.
 教育Essay范例
教育Essay范例
Multiple intelligences: Howard Gardner多元智能:霍华德·加德纳
This theory of Multiple Intelligences was suggested in 1983 by the American psychologist Howard Gardener in his book Frames of the Mind. Gardner’s theory proposed that learners have particular types of intelligences that can be classified, and each individual has differing levels of competence within each intelligence type or profile.
多元智能理论是由美国心理学家霍华德·加德纳于1983年在其著作《心灵的框架》中提出的。加德纳的理论提出,学习者有可以分类的特定智力类型,每个人在每种智力类型或特征中有不同的能力水平。
 
Gardner identified 8 intelligences
Linguistic – the capacity to use words effectively
Logical-mathematical – the capacity to use numbers effectively
Spatial – the ability to perceive the visual-spatial world accurately
Bodily-kinaesthetic – expertise in using one’s whole body to express ideas and feelings.
Musical – the capacity to perceive, discriminate, transform and express musical forms.
Interpersonal – the ability to perceive and make distinctions in the moods, intentions and feelings of other people.
Intrapersonal – self-knowledge and the ability to act on that knowledge.
Naturalistic – expertise in the recognition and classification of the numerous species.
(Definitions from Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom – Thomas Armstrong)
 
Gardner’s theory proposed that the idea of I.Q. does not take into account the wide range of abilities humans display. In the multiple intelligences theory Gardner states that each intelligence profile can be improved to a high level and suggests that teaching should incorporate all intelligences into the classroom so as to cater to a wide range of abilities and intelligences. This will enable the learner to learn in a way that bests suits his or her individual intelligence profile. Gardner highlights the importance of the teacher acknowledging that individuals have different levels of competence within certain intelligences, and suggests lessons should be planned to help the learner improve in the intelligences in which they are weaker. This idea has been reinforced by research that proposes intelligence is developed though opportunity and the learner’s experience (Shayer and Addy, 2002)
 
Some of the ideas behind this theory of multiple intelligences have been criticized in the psychology and educational theory communities (White, 1998), a common criticism is that the theory is based on the theorist personal opinion. Psychologist such as George Miller believe Gardner’s theory is based on his intuition and states that the theory lacks empirical data. Gardner’s responds to his critics stating. “The testimonials and s are numerous enough from lots of different places to suggest it’s worth taking seriously.” There is a lot of anecdotal evidence in support of MI, but no formal studies. At the very least, many believe that MI theory merits further investigation and large-scale research”. Other criticisms are based on teachers putting pupils into fixed intelligence profiles. This does not allow the learner to improve in intelligences in which they are deemed to be less able, leading to a non-inclusive environment.
 
Constructivism and Social Constructivism: Piaget Vygotsky建构主义与社会建构主义:皮亚杰·维果茨基
Constructivism theory suggests that people learn through an interaction between thinking and experience, and through the sequential development of more complex cognitive structures (Pollard 2002). The most influential constructivist theorist was Piaget. Jean Piaget (1896-1980) was a Swiss psychologist, philosopher and teacher. He taught at Grange-Aux-Belles school for boys, he noticed when marking the pupils work that young children would consistently give the wrong answers to certain questions. When he looked closer at these results he found that there was a pattern to the mistakes that young children made, that older children did not. This led him to believe that there was an inherent difference in the way younger people learn than that of adults.
建构主义理论认为,人们通过思考和经验之间的互动,以及通过更复杂的认知结构的顺序发展来学习(Pollard 2002)。最有影响力的建构主义理论家是皮亚杰。皮亚杰(Jean Piaget, 1896-1980),瑞士心理学家、哲学家和教师。他在grange - aux - belle男校教书,他注意到在给学生批改作业时,小孩子总是对某些问题给出错误的答案。当他仔细研究这些结果时,他发现年幼的孩子犯的错误有一个模式,而年长的孩子则没有。这使他相信年轻人的学习方式与成年人有内在的不同。
 
Piaget proposed through a process of “accommodation and “assimilation” children construct their own reality by means of experimenting on their own environment.
 
Piaget proposed that there are four key developmental stages in which children process their experience.
 
Sensorimotor – From birth to age 2 years. The infant builds an understanding of himself or herself and reality (and how things work) through interactions with the environment. It is able to differentiate between itself and other objects. Learning takes place via assimilation (the organization of information and absorbing it into existing schema) and accommodation (when an object cannot be assimilated and the schemata have to be modified to include the object.
Pre-operational stage – From 2 to 7 years The child is not yet able to conceptualize abstractly and needs concrete physical situations. Objects are classified in simple ways, especially by important features
Concrete operations stage – (7 to 12 years). As physical experience accumulates, accommodation is increased. The child begins to think abstractly and conceptualize, creating logical structures that explain his or her physical experiences.
Formal operations stage – (12 to 15 years) Cognition reaches its final form. By this stage, the person no longer requires concrete objects to make rational judgements. He or she is capable of deductive and hypothetical reasoning. His or her ability for abstract thinking is very similar to an adult.
The consequence of Piaget work has lead to the idea of a child centred approach to teaching, this is especially true in Primary school classes. It has promoted the use of varied and stimulating classroom environments from which children can derive challenging experiences.
 
Some limitations of Piagets work have been highlighted, one such criticism is that due to the fact that the abilitiy of a child to learn is structured into stages, it can lead to the under estimation of their capacities. Studies have shown that children’s capacities are much greater than those suggested by Piaget (Tizard and Hughes)
 
Another criticism of Piagets work is that as it can be difficult to meet the needs of all individuals in a class, the need for a tailored learning experience for each individual class can lead to a detrimental situation whereby the teacher spends so much time managing the class room they are not able to spend enough time teaching their pupils.
 
Social Constructivism is a revision of Piaget’s theory and was proposed by Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky. He believed that Piaget’s theory did not take into account a child’s social interactions which he believed also had an effect on cognitive development. Vygotsky’s theory proposed that.
 
Interaction and culture have a dramatic effect on cognitive development.
Cognitive processes (language, thought and reasoning) develop though social interaction.
Learning is a shared social activity embedded in classroom interactions.
The relationship between learner and teacher is crucial.
Within Vygotsky’s theory he introduces the idea of the zone of proximal development (ZPD) in learning this is stated as. “The distance between the actual development level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers” (Vygotsky, 1978, p. 86). This assisting the learner by a more capable other has been termed “scaffolding”. Scaffolding is a process whereby the learner is provided with structure and support which allows them to understand task they could not do alone. As the learner develops an understanding of the task the scaffolding can be removed this results in “more sophisticated cognitive systems… the system of knowledge itself becomes part of the scaffold or social support for the new learning” (Raymond, 2000, p. 176).
 
Curriculum for Excellence lends heavily from these ideas with its AifL and inclusion initiatives. AifL formative assessment polices should bring more balance to the position of more knowledgeable other as it aims to have class peers as well as the teacher filling this role. The active role of the learner in this theory should allow for a better understanding of what is being taught and why resulting in an improved learning environment.
 
Theories used in the classroom课堂上使用的理论
Multiple Intelligences
During my time on SE1A I tried to accommodate a number of different intelligences into my lesson. During planning of any lesson I would implement different styles of learning, this was not always possible due to resource and time constraints, however in the instances where it was possible I noticed positive results.
在学习SE1A课程期间,我尝试在我的课程中融入一些不同的智能。在计划任何课程时,我都会采用不同的学习风格,但由于资源和时间的限制,这并不总是可能的,但在可能的情况下,我注意到积极的结果。
 
Whilst taking a S1 class covering human body systems, I was able to use a selection of learning materials. I made sure that all pupils were exposed to all learning types, the aim of the lesson was to allow all pupils to reach the success criteria using three different learning styles. The styles I adopted were the use of a video (Visual) models of the human body (kinaesthetic) and group discussion (Linguistic-Intrapersonal). I found this to be a successful lesson as during plenary pupils were able to articulate which learning style they found most beneficial and which they found least.
 
With this in mind I will continue to utilize the multiple intelligences theory when planning my lessons and will try to accommodate as many learning intelligences as possible.
 
Social constructivism
I implemented social constructivist theory when setting a task to a S1 class I was teaching, the class was split into groups A,B,C,D,E each group was given the task of finding out about a specific cell type/s, during this time I moved around the class scaffolding. Once the group collected all the information that was required, the groups were rearranged so each member of the group had looked at a different cell. The aim of the lesson was for each member of the group to teach the rest of the group what they had found out. Each group successfully completed the learning and success criteria. The whole class were engaged and there was a high degree of learning taking place, having seen this theory in practice I will be continuing to use and improve it in my practice.
 
Assessment strategies评估策略
In recent years assessment has become the primary focus in education. This has occurred for two reasons (Pollard 2008). The first and most significant has been the need for governments to have a way of measuring educational output. This was seen as a way for parents to be able to compare between different schools test results, and therefore be able to make an informed choice as to what school to send their children to. The hope was that the publication of league tables would encourage all schools to raise standards and constantly improve on results to raise their position in the school ratings tables. The second reason for the increased interest in assessment came from the realisation of the value of continual assessment in informing teaching and improving learning (Black and William 1998). Their research highlighted that assessment can be used as a tool to determine not only what has been learned i.e. end of topic tests and exams, but assessment can also be used as a tool for learning.
近年来,评估已成为教育的主要焦点。发生这种情况有两个原因(Pollard 2008)。首先,也是最重要的是,政府需要有一种衡量教育产出的方法。这被认为是父母能够比较不同学校的测试结果的一种方式,因此能够在知情的情况下选择送孩子去哪所学校。他们希望排行榜的公布能够鼓励所有学校提高标准,不断改进成绩,从而提高他们在学校评分表中的地位。对评估的兴趣增加的第二个原因,是认识到持续评估在教导和改善学习方面的价值(Black和William, 1998)。他们的研究强调,评估不仅可以作为一种工具来确定学了什么,即主题结束测试和考试,评估也可以作为一种学习工具。
 
Assessment is for Learning (AifL)
Assessment is for learning (AifL) is an attempt to try and have more balance in the Scottish curriculum, the over emphasis of summative assessments strategies, such as end of topic tests and exams, does not necessarily give a good indication to the level of learning that takes place in the class room. Instead the use of formative assessment strategies should be at the core of effective teaching practice. The work of Black and William in 1998 established that there was strong evidence that formative assessment can raise standards of pupil’s achievement. Assessment can be said to be formative when the results from the teachers and students assessing themselves generate an adaption to the teaching methods subsequently employed to meet the needs of the pupils. (Inside the Black Box). It is this idea of continual pupil teacher interactions leading to adaptation of teaching to meet the needs of individual pupils that lies at the heart of effective teaching.
 
The AifL framework incorporates three different aspects of assessment:
assessment FOR learning
assessment OF learning
assessment AS learning,
Assessment For learning
The purpose of assessment for learning is to “focus on the gap between where a learner is in their learning, and where they need to be- the desired goal” (LTScotland). This goal can be attained by a variety of means such as feedback to students, ensuring the pupils are aware of the learning intentions and effective questioning among others. Black and William have defined assessment for learning as “all those activities undertaken by teachers and/or by their students, which provide information to be used as feedback to modify the teaching and learning activities in which they are engaged”
 
Key features
The key features as stated by LTS website are as follows
 
Focus on high quality interactions – Successful assessment in the classroom should involve high quality interactions based on thoughtful questions, careful listening and effective responses. This should involve giving pupils adequate “wait time” before trying to answer questions as suggested by Mary Budd Rowe (“Wait Time and Rewards as Instructional Variables ,Their Influence on Language, Logic, and Fate Control,” Journal of Researching Science Teaching, vol. 11, 1974, pp. 81-94). This could also be the use of a no hands policy when answering questions
 
Involving pupils in their learning – Focus on the extent your pupils and staff are fully involved in deciding next steps in their learning and identifying who can help. This should involve the learners having a active role in what they are being taught were possible, and giving the learner choice in the ways which they learn as stated by Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences
 
Feedback – Pupils and staff are given timely feedback about the quality of their work and how to make it better. This idea of positive reinforcement regarding pupils work it part of Skinner’s behaviourist theory. The importance of both verbal and written feedback allows the learner to know if there are any gaps in their knowledge, but also lets them know what areas they perform well in.
Sharing criteria – “Pupils, staff and parents are clear about what is to be learned and what success would be like”
It is important that pupils are made aware of the task they are carrying out and what is to be learned by sharing learning intentions, in addition it is also important that they are aware of what the success criteria are for said task. This practice of sharing learning intentions and success criteria is a vital part of the assessment for learning strategy and is similar to Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development.
 教育Essay怎么写
教育Essay怎么写
Assessment in the classroom课堂评估
During my time on SE1A I implemented a number of different formative assessment techniques, I always shared the learning intentions with the class, they would be written on the white board allowing me to carry out the lesson on the smart board. This would allow the pupils to have a reference point which they could easily see throughout the lesson, helped the pupils to put the lesson into context. In my first lessons I did not share the success criteria with the pupils and would instead go over them in the plenary, however having spoken to colleagues I was advised that it would be beneficial to share the success criteria with the pupils this was reinforced when I went back to the literature which resulted in me watching teachers TV video .The sharing of learning and success criteria did improve the classes understanding of a particular topic as they had a clear idea of what was expected of them.
在SE1A期间,我实施了许多不同的形成性评估技术,我总是与全班分享学习意图,他们会写在白板上,让我在智能板上进行课程。这将使学生有一个参考点,他们可以很容易地在整个课程中看到,帮助学生把课程纳入上下文。在我的第一节课上,我没有和学生们分享成功的标准,而是在全体会议上讨论,然而同事谈过我建议将有利于与学生分享成功标准这是钢筋,当我回到文学导致我看老师电视视频,分享学习和成功标准提高了课程的理解有一个特定的主题清楚地知道他们的期望是什么。
 
With both my S1 and S2 I implemented a no-hands up policy, I would start by asking the pupils a question I would then give them at least a minute to think of an answer, then I would ask an individual for an answer. This took a bit of time for the pupils to get used to as certain pupils were getting frustrated by the wait time as they knew the answer. I think overall this strategy worked well for most children as it gave the whole class time to think and as they did not know who would be asked the question it led to a high level of engagement.
 
In a S2 class I was responsible for a revision lesson for an end of topic test. I implemented a quiz that was to be created by the class, this involved splitting the class into groups and getting them to come up with questions pertaining to the topic. This worked well as there was a high level of competition for the position of top team. Once I had made sure the pupils knew the nature of the questions they could ask they were left to come up with questions themselves. This actually challenged the pupils as they wanted to come up with challenging questions for their peers, which lead to some high level learning and a high level of engagement.
 
Other strategies I have used include the use of a traffic light system whereby pupils who showed a green light for understanding a particular topic paired up with pupils who showed red light. The green light pupils would then help explain aspects of the topic.
 
I will be implementing other assessment strategies in my continuing practice, such as exit questions, show me boards and mind maps, while constantly improving my questioning skills.
 
A Curriculum For Excellence
The Curriculum for Excellence (CfE) is the new Scottish curriculum to be taught in all public Scottish schools by August 2010.
 
CfE came about due to the “National Debate on Education” this debate was launched by the Scottish Executive in 2002, the aim of the debate was to build on the high quality education that was being provided to many of the young people in Scotland but also to ensure that “all young people were being offered a welcoming and stimulating environment for the 21st century.” (Scottish Executive, 2002).
 
The result of this debate was that although there were many positive aspects of the current curriculum there was a need for change. In November 2004 the proposal for CfE was approved and published, it was implemented to broaden the learning experiences of young people and to make these experiences more enjoyable and relevant to a rapidly changing environment.
 
CfE has been designed to develop four main capacities in all young people between the ages of 3 and 18, these capacities being successful learners, confident individuals, responsible citizens and effective contributors. To achieve this goal CfE has 7 principles of curriculum design that have been devised to ensure the four capacities are met.
 
Challenge and enjoyment – Young people should find their learning challenging, engaging and motivating. The lessons planned by teachers should reflect this principle by encouraging high aspirations and ambitions for all pupils.
Breadth – All young people should be educated in a broad range of outcomes and experiences across all curriculum areas. The learning may be linked to vocational or other specialized contexts and will take place both in the class room and other cross-curricular activities.
Progression – The learning experience will take place between the ages of 3 – 18 and will show a continual progression within a single curricular framework. The rate of progression should be tailored to the individual so that it meets their needs and aptitudes, and leaves options open so that no choices within the curriculum are closed prematurely.
Depth – The learner should have opportunities to gain a deeper understanding for different types of thinking and learning. As they progress through the years they should be able to reach their full capacity by developing cognitive skills, while also gaining a better understanding of their moral values and beliefs.
Personalisation and Choice – the curriculum should accommodate every individual learners needs and support their aptitudes and talents. The learner should have an active role in how and what they learn.
Coherence – The curriculum should be a coherent learning experience from 3-18 and there should be clear links between different aspects of their learning. This should include lessons which can draw from different strands of learning which cross over traditional subject boundaries
Relevance – The leering experienced by young people should be relevant to them. They should understand why they are learning and it relevance to their lives both inside and outside the class room.
The Curriculum for excellence aims to give all young people the skills and knowledge they need to succeed in the modern day world. If all schools can succeed at developing the four capacities in all individuals then it should give their pupils an ideal start in life and should make for a shining example of what can be achieved.
 
CfE in the class room在教室里
As the CfE outcomes and experiences have not yet been implemented in the school I was at on SE1 I was not able to plan lessons around them. The school I was placed at was still teaching the 5-14 National Guidelines, however this did not stop me from looking at the similarities in each set of outcomes. Looking at the outcomes it became clear that there was an overlap in both sets of outcomes which allowed me to teach lessons which would cover both 5 to 14 and CfE outcomes. During my observations at school it became clear that in many cases the seven principles within CfE were being adhered to, this allowed me to learn from my peers how best to implement them into my classes.
由于CfE的成果和经验还没有在我所在的SE1学校实施,我无法围绕它们规划课程。我所在的学校仍在教授《5-14国家指南》,但这并没有阻止我观察每一组结果的相似性。看看结果,很明显,两组结果有重叠之处,这让我能够教授涵盖5到14和CfE结果的课程。在我在学校的观察中,我发现CfE的七个原则在很多情况下都得到了遵守,这让我能够从同龄人那里学习如何将它们最好地应用到我的课堂上。
 
Challenge and Enjoyment
During my observation time on placement I was able to see exactly what was working well within certain classes, although at this point I had a lot of ideas on how best to put together my lessons getting a pupils eye view on the lesson really helped me to choose activities that would work best.
 
I was responsible for a class of S1 pupils on SE1, through a series of lessons I implemented a range of different activities to keep the class stimulated and motivated. During the lessons the pupils were involved in card sorts, cut and paste activities, individual paired and full class investigations, smart board activities, videos, modelling, posters making and PowerPoint presentations. Appendix? Shows a poster made by a group of my pupils, the lesson involved doing research for the topic in the ICT suite followed by a presentation to the rest of the class using posters or PowerPoint. All the pupils were actively involved in the exercise and pupils had the choice of how they wished to present their information. I also left it up to the pupils to delegate certain tasks to each member of the team. These activities allowed the learners to have an active role in their learning and choose which method of learning they thought worked best for them. During the plenary session at the end of the lesson we would discuss if they had met the success criteria and in some cases if their chosen type of learning style was actually effective.
 
Relevance
When planning my lesson I always thought of ways to bring in real life examples to the topics I was teaching. When I was covering the electrochemical series with a S3 class I was able to show why we use different metals in producing batteries, this lead to me explaining the chemistry of mobile phone batteries and ways to extend their life. During a lesson on the respiratory system to a S1 class I was able to show the effect that smoking has on the lungs, and highlighted the importance of a healthy diet in digestion. During the forces topic we investigated the varying levels of friction of different materials on ice, the pupils were then able to suggest the best types of footwear to either reduce or increase friction if they were out walking on an icy winter’s day.
 
Literacy and numeracy
Literacy
Within CfE literacy had been highlighted as a core skill which is to be embedded throughout the curriculum regardless of the subject.
 
Literacy is defined as “the set of skills which allows an individual to engage fully in society and in learning, through the different forms of language, and the range of texts, which society values and finds useful.” (LTS)
 
Improving literacy skills is of vital importance as it enables young people to “develop skills for learning, skills for life and skills for work,” (www.ltscotland.org.uk/curriculumforexcellence/buildingthecurriculum/entitlements/skills/index.asp)
 
Literacy skills enable young people to better understand and interact with their subjects in the curriculum, not only this but these skills are transferrable to the out of school environment, be that the work place or in everyday living. If a pupil has trouble with literacy skills this can lead to a lack of progression in a particular subject, the impression that the teacher may have is that the pupil is not engagement in the subject. However the root of the problem is that the pupils have poor reading writing or listening skills.
 
The outcomes for literacy are: Reading, Writing, Listening and Talking
 
CfE demands that all practitioners engage with improving levels of literacy, as the improvement in literacy will result in an increased understanding of all subjects within the school curriculum. By ensuring that all practitioners take responsibility for literacy within schools the pupil will have the opportunity to develop their skills for learning, skills for life and skills for the work place.
 
Numeracy
As with Literacy, numeracy is also a core skill within CfE “All teachers have responsibility for promoting the development of numeracy. With an increased emphasis upon numeracy for all young people, teachers will need to plan to revisit and consolidate numeracy skills throughout schooling.” (Building the Curriculum I)
 
Numeracy has been highlighted as a core skill, as like literacy competent numeracy skills are essential in everyday life, and as such to be able to contribute effectively to society young people should have a good grounding in these skills. Strong numeracy skills provide young people with better understanding of the world around them and are a basis for lifelong learning. The building of strong numeracy skills throughout the curriculum should give young people “the confidence and competence in using number which will allow individuals to solve problems, analyse information and make informed decisions based on calculations.” CfE folder
 
Summary
It has been shown that strong skills in both literacy and numeracy benefits both the individual and the nation as a whole. The importance of these skills is highlighted in the ALNIS report which states “Literacy and numeracy skills are critical for adults to achieve the goals they set themselves at work, at home, in the community and as learners. The personal consequences of low literacy and numeracy skills can be serious. The national consequences for a modern, multicultural, competitive Scotland, and efforts to achieve social justice, are far reaching.” (ALNIS, p 12)
 
Literacy in the classroom课堂识字
During placement SE1A, I paid particular attention to the literacy outcomes defined by CfE. When lesson planning I integrated literacy outcomes into all my classes be these reading writing talking or listening.
在安置SE1A期间,我特别关注CfE定义的读写结果。当课程计划时,我把读写能力的成果整合到我所有的课程中,包括阅读、写作、谈话或听力。
 
In one class I used a video to summarise main points that had been taught throughout the topic. I asked to take down note summarizing the main points of the topic, this would allow me to gauge whether they had understood the main learning intention of the topic. I made sure to stop the video at key points to allow the children with slower cognitive or writing skills time to think and write. This exercise planned to improve the children’s listening and note taking abilities as this is a important skill needed in the school and work environment. The children were then asked to report back what notes they had taken and why within groups. This exercise was also developed to improve there talking skills as they each had to individually report back the notes they had taken. I found this exercise invaluable as I quickly realised that there was a wide range of abilities within the class, as a whole the class found this task difficult. There were a number of aspects of the task the children found difficult which arose during the plenary discussion, many of which arose from having to watch the video and write down short concise notes. This task showed me the true extend of the importance of differentiation required in lessons, it also highlighted that note taking is a skill that may not have been taught in any depth within the curriculum. In future I will make sure that before carrying out an exercise like this that a significant amount of time is spent teaching the skill as I think it will benefit pupils in the short and long term.
 
The creation of a lab write up within a class is an excellent way to improve writing skills. Every practical carried out by my classes is accompanied with an experimental write up. The use of experimental write ups gives children exposure to an unfamiliar way of writing. I always encourage my pupils to write up reports in a scientific manner with an aim, hypothesis, results and conclusion.
 
Before the write up I would ask for suggestion as to how the report should be worded, followed by an example provided by myself. This got the children thin inking about the structure and register of the piece. In some cases I would ask an individual or group to present their findings to the class. In one class I split the class into four groups and asked each group to write up the aim, method and way to record results for the four different experiments. Once completed the group’s swapped reports and tried to carry out experiment using the report they received. I will be continuing to use lab report writing as I think it does cover a wide range of outcomes for literacy, and when carried out well does engage pupils.
在写报告之前,我会征求关于报告应该如何措词的建议,然后我自己举一个例子。这让孩子们对作品的结构和音域产生了浓厚的兴趣。在某些情况下,我会请个人或小组向全班展示他们的发现。在一堂课上,我把全班分成四组,要求每组写出记录四个不同实验结果的目的、方法和方法。一旦完成了小组的交换报告,并试图使用他们收到的报告进行实验。我将继续使用实验室报告写作,因为我认为它涵盖了广泛的识字成果,如果实施得当,确实能吸引学生。
 
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