中西社交礼仪差异与跨文化适应性—对海归留学生的调查研究

日期:2016-06-01 作者: 硕博论文网 编辑:lgg 点击次数:74
论文价格: 免费论文 论文编号: sb2016052514034915661 论文字数:38293 所属栏目:英语论文
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Having a better comprehension of the differences in social etiquettes between Chinese and western countries can know more about social etiquettes and the real meaning of culture as well.
1 Introduction 
 
1.1 Rationale of the study 
Today, the economy is developing at an astonishing rate. The development of the society makes the world much smaller than before. With such a circumstance, many Chinese people would  like  to  go  to  foreign  countries  to  pursue  advanced  education.  Studying  abroad gradually becomes an indispensable link in many young people’s life planning under the age of globalization. The blooming of studying abroad has opened a door to many countries and regions to communicate with each other. It provides basis for the spread of ideas and culture. It also let the students who come from countries without proper learning facilities obtain the necessary  professional  technical.  To  study  abroad,  coming  into  the  local  country, understanding  another  custom  and  culture,  can  broaden  international  students’  horizon, increase their experiences and enhance their cultural sensitivity. And it is extremely important to increase their experience. Cross-cultural contacting brings not only the feeling of novel and mysterious, but also varieties of precious experiences. Going overseas and living in a strange land and surrounded by a strange culture are serious challenges for all international students. Living  in  a  totally  different  cultural  environment  means  international  students  must  make certain changes in the way of life or their thinking patterns. At the same time they must face all kinds of problems such as the pressure of academy and economy, the barrier of language, maladjustment  to  the  climate  and  the  diet,  far  away  from  relatives,  friends  or  home.  Even some international students are unaccepted by the local county or they have mental or health problems or they may sometimes face the racial discrimination. All these changes will bring psychological pressure to the international students, and not every student can overcome the pressure and achieve successful adaptation to the completely different cultural environment. 
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1.2 Significance of the study 
At present, there are lots of researches on cross-cultural adaptation in western countries. But most of the existing researches are on the basis of western countries’ data, especially the American data. The international famous comparative education expert P.G Altbach once said: “Most of the existing literatures are about the third world’s students how to adapt to the life in the  industrialized  countries  and  about  the  feelings  they  have  when  they  come  back  to  their home countries. There are also some other relevant problems. This reflects the problems that economic cooperation and development countries concern and are interested in. But they are just part of the problems international students have.” (P.G Altbach 1991) On account of the differences in cultures between Chinese and western countries, the results of western findings and literatures can not explain the adaptation problems of overseas Chinese students. In china, more and more researches about the foreign international  students’  cross-cultural  adaptation are  springing  up.  And  the  existing  researches  treat  the  Chinese  students  abroad  as  objects. Such  as  Chen  Xiangming  studied  adaptations  of  Chinese  students  in  United  States,  Xu Guangxing  discussed  adaptations  of  Chinese  students  in  Japan;  Zheng  Xue  studied  the  adaptation of visiting scholars. But they are all from many aspects to carry on their studies. The study on their social etiquettes between Chinese and western students are quite few, and they  are  usually  found  in  journals.  As  a  result  of  that,  the  research  about  cross-cultural adaptation of overseas Chinese students from the view of the differences between Chinese and western social etiquettes provides a new theoretical perspective.  
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2 Literature review and theoretical basis 
 
2.1 Culture relativism 
In  the  category  of  cultural  anthropology,  culture  relativism  is  a  very  important  item.  It gives  a  new  perspective  to  excavate  the  differences  of  different  culture.  Today,  we  have  a widely used definition of culture relativism, it is “culture relativism involves: understanding another  culture  in  its  own  terms  sympathetically  enough  so  that  the  culture  appears  to  be  a coherent  and  meaningful  design  for  living.”(Greenwood  &  Stini  1997).  According  to  its meaning,  it  shows  that  different  culture  has  its  own  meaning.  If  people  intend  to  study  one culture,  they  must  understand  it  in  its  own  environment  firstly.  The  key  word  of  culture relativism is “understand”. Often it is not clear where to draw the line between two different cultures. Cultures are rather complicated.   Later,  some  cultural  anthropologists  began  to  study  ethnography.  They  do  many experiments  to  confirm  that  people  need  objective  descriptions  to  prevent  the  perils  of ethnocentrism. Franz Boas in United States and Bronislaw Malinowski in Britain with some cultural anthropologists in twenty century conducted many empirical fieldworks.  Culture relativism provides an effective way to help people know about different cultures. It also helps them know why people in different culture do things in their own way. Although the dividing lines among cultures are fuzzy, we can not treat all culture as morally equivalent. Having  a  better  understanding  of  culture  relativism  is  benefit  from  the  insights  of cross-cultural adaptability.
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2.2 Culture shock 
Kalervo  Oberg,  the  anthologist  who  first  came  up  with  the  term  “culture  shock”.  It describes  “the  sighs  of  anxiety  that  can  occur  when  people  bump  into  a  new  culture  that presents  very  few  familiar  symbols  or  behaviors.”(Kalervo  Oberg  1960)  According  to Kalervo  Oberg’s  understanding,  the  anxiety  is  resulted  from  losing  all  the  familiar  cultural hints. If it is treated accurately, the migrants can recover or adapt to the new cultural situation and feel at home. (Oberg 1960). Zwingmann  and  Gunn  treated  culture  shock  as  homesickness,  adjustment  difficulties, uprooting  to  refer  to  the  phenomenon  of  culture  shock.(Zwingmann  &  Gunn  1983)  Seelye adopted  self-discovery  shock,  role  shock,  transition  shock  and  culture  fatigue  to  describe culture  shock.  (Seelye  1995)  Caputo  held  that  culture  shock  means  when  people  visiting another  culture,  the  feeling  of  estrangement  or  displacement  he  feels.(Caputo  1994)  Barna suggests that culture shock to be one of the stumbling blocks in intercultural communication (Barna 1997).  
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3 Methodology .......... 14 
3.1 Research questions and research methods ...... 14 
3.1.1 Research questions ............ 14 
3.1.2 Research methods .... 14 
3.2 Subjects ......... 15
3.3 Instruments and Data-collection ............ 16 
4 Data analysis and discussions of findings .... 19 
4.1 Differences between Chinese and western social etiquettes ......... 19 
4.2 Causes for differences ....... 28
4.3 Strategies Chinese returnees take .......... 32 
4.4 Main factors influencing cross-cultural adaptability ........... 33
5 Conclusions ............ 35 
5.1 Strategies to improve cross-cultural adaptability ...... 35 
5.1.1 Strengthen language training ....... 35 
5.1.2 Create ways to know about culture ....... 36 
5.1.3 Provide cross-culture psychological consultation ..... 36 
5.2 Cross-cultural training ....... 37 
5.3 Implication for second language learning ....... 38 
5.4 Limitations .... 39 
5.5 Suggestions .... 40 
 
4 Data analysis and discussions of findings 
 
4.1 Differences between Chinese and western social etiquettes 
Based  on  the  findings  of  this  interview,  the  respondents  have  mentioned  all  together eight aspects to show the differences between Chinese and western social etiquettes. They are: ways of greeting, courtesy, addressing system, visiting, inviting, compliment and apologize, gifts-giving and receiving and table manners.It is well-known that, it is a custom to greet each other when people meet. And it is a one of  the  world’s  people  common  etiquettes.  It  is  a  channel  to  show  people’s  kindness  and politeness. Erving Goffman (1971), American socialist once argued that greeting is a sign and recognition of communication. And British anthropologists J.R.Firth (1972) said that greeting is the confirmation and recognition of communicative activities. It has a role of establishing and extending the relationships ( J.R.Firth 1972).     There are two forms of greeting: verbal greeting and non-verbal greeting. In this study, the author needs to discuss the verbal greeting. The verbal greeting involves five categories. They are: wishing, caring, talking, addressing and praising.Greeting can be treated as the most common etiquette in our daily life. China and other western countries have many differences in this aspect. Although it is such a really small thing, it  can  show  the  big  difference  between  two  kinds  of  cultures.  In  China,  when  two acquaintances  meet  each  other,  they  always  say  such  as:  “Have  you  ever  had  your  meal?” “Where  are  you  going?”  or  “Didn’t  you  go  to  work  today?”  and  so  on.  These  are  the  most ordinary ways to greet others in China, but if  you  use  these  words  to  greet  foreigners,  they must  feel  unwell.  They  must  feel  strange  that  why  you  ask  them  these  questions  and sometimes it may cause misunderstanding.  
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Conclusions 
 
As  stated  above,  Chinese  social  etiquettes  are  quite  different  from  those  in  western countries.  These  differences  involves  in  many  fields.  Such  as  differences  in  cultural background,  national  identity,  natural  environment,  ways  of  communications,  social  status and values can cause these differences. In order to overcome all the troubles in the course of cross-cultural  adaptation,  the  returnees  have  adopted  many  strategies.  Although  they  have received no trainings before they go abroad, they feel their way of adapting to the new culture and try to fit in it quickly. But as for cross-cultural adaptation, what strategies should people take to overcome the difficulties? These strategies should be systematic and specific. The aim of  these  strategies  is  to  give  international  students  some  guidance  and  instructions.   The second  finding  should  be  paid  attention  to  is  what  are  the  implications  for  combining cross-cultural education with Chinese English teaching? These implications can give a pattern to Chinese English teaching in cross-cultural adaptation.  At  the  beginning  of  the  final  section  of  this  thesis,  the  author  tries  to  focus  on  the strategies people should take in the course of cross-cultural adaptation firstly. After integrating these strategies, the author gives some ways to put the cross-cultural training into effect. Then the author comes down to the implications for ESL. At last of this section, the author comes up  with  the  implications  for  English  language  learning.  Then  the  author  figures  out  some limitations of this thesis and at the end of this chapter the author puts up some ideas for the further study. 
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The reference (omitted)

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