交互式阅读法在农村初中英语阅读中的推广思考

论文价格:300元/篇 论文用途:硕士毕业论文 Master Thesis 编辑:vicky 点击次数:
论文字数:46888 论文编号:sb2021110114035639390 日期:2021-11-17 来源:硕博论文网
本文是一篇英语论文,作者通过问卷调查发现扎伊玛中学英语阅读中存在的问题。此外,很多学生对英语阅读课并没有太大兴趣。阅读理解能力差。很多学生在阅读过程中很少使用字典等阅读策略和工具。此外,教师习惯于采用自下而上的阅读教学模式。

Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1 The background of the research
English is an international language, and it is the official language in most of the countries all over the world. As a result, English becomes a preferred second language to learn for billions of people as we have to communicate with the outside world by using  English  as  the  interlanguage  most  of  the  time.  Chinese  education  has  always laid  much  stress  on  learning  English.  Chinese  students  are  required  to  learn  it  from Grade 3 in primary school till they graduate from college. During the long journey of English  learning,  all  learners  face  a  nightmare,  that  is,  they  have  to  take  part  in English tests from time to time and high scores are very important as they need better scores   to get into a better school in the future. An English test is usually formed by three dimensions in China which includes listening, reading and writing. Among the many  English  tests  in  China  from  primary  school  to  university,  the  reading comprehension part is always the most important as it holds the most points compared with the other parts. For instance, the reading comprehension part takes up 30 points out  of  150  points  in  the  senior  high  school  entrance  examination  of  Qiandongnan State,  Guizhou  Province.  That  is  to  say,  this  single  part  holds  one  fifth  of  the  total points.  It  is  no  doubt  that  English  teachers  pay  more  attention  to  reading  in  their teaching  for  students’  better  development.  And  the  students’  reading  ability  must  be good, too. However, the author has worked as an English teacher in a rural junior high school. The things she saw and heard can lead to a conclusion that the reading ability of the students tells another story. 
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1.2 The objectives and questions of the research
This thesis aims to investigate the existing problems of English reading in Zaima Middle School and study whether the interactive reading model can improve students’ reading comprehension ability.   The research questions are as follows.
(1) What are the existing problems of English reading in Zaima Middle School?
(2) Is the interactive reading model effective to improve students’ reading ability in  Zaima  Middle  School?  If  yes,  what  reading  strategies  do  the  students enhance? 
There are five chapters in this thesis.
The  first  chapter  is  the  introduction.  It  introduces  the  background,  objectives, questions, significance and structure of the research.
The second chapter is literature review. To start with, it presents the definitions of reading, then introduces the three reading models which are the bottom-up model, the  top-down  model  and  the  interactive  model.  Next,  there  are  the  reviews  on  the interactive model both at home and abroad. Finally, it introduces the theoretical bases of the interactive reading model ---the schema theory and the constructivism theory.
The  third  chapter  is  the  research  design.  It  presents  the  questions,  subjects, instruments and procedures of the research. Besides, it also shows the procedures of reading teaching in the experimental class and the control class.
The  fourth  chapter  is  the  results  and  discussion  of  the  research.  There  are  two questionnaires  and  two  tests  in  the  research.  The  collected  data  of  the  two questionnaires  and  tests  are  analyzed  by  the  author  in  the  chapter.
There  are  also results and discussion of the class observation.  The  fifth  chapter  is  the  conclusion.  The  author  writes  about  the  findings,  the implications  and  limitations  of  the  research.  In  addition,  she  also  mentions  the prospects for future study.
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Chapter 2 Literature Review

2.1 The definitions of reading
The noun “ reading ” derives from the verb “ read ” which means to look at and understand  the  meaning  of  written  or  printed  words  or  symbols  in  the  Oxford Dictionary. Reading plays an essential role in our daily life. We enrich our knowledge reserve  and  broaden  our  horizons  through  reading.  (  NiuLu,2020  )  In  addition,  We read  to  get  the  information  and  knowledge  we  need  most  of  time.  What’s  more, reading helps us save our time. For instance, if we want to know facts about ancient times or other cultures, we do not need to travel back to the past which the technology today  also  not  allows  us  to  do  so  or  go  to  other  countries  because  we  can  read  the information  we  want  from  books  or  Internet.  As  a  saying  goes  in  China,  “  Without going outdoors, a scholar knows all the world’s affairs.” It is because in ancient China, only scholars had the ability to read since others did not have chances to learn to read. Readers  may  all  encounter  some  situations  in  their  reading  process.  For  instance, when  they  read,  there  are  some  new  words  in  the  text  which  prevent  them  from understanding.  Or,  sometimes,  they  are  familiar  with  the  expressions  in  the  text  but they cannot get the points of it. What’s wrong? Isn’t reading to read the printed words? Then, the meaning floats on the words. Yet, if we want to complete a perfect reading, it is not enough to just look at the written language. It is more than that. 
Figure 2.1   From Rumelhart, 1977, Toward an Interactive Model of Reading
Figure 2.1   From Rumelhart, 1977, Toward an Interactive Model of Reading 
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2.2 The bottom-up reading model
In the mid-nineteenth century, Gough put forward the bottom-up reading model.He describes, “ Graphemes are perceived as forming words, words forming sentences, sentences  forming  paragraphs  and  so  on.  In  other  words,  reading  process  is  from letters to sounds, to words, to sentences and finally to the meaning. ” (1972) From the above,  it  is  easy  to  find  that  the  bottom-up  reading  model  considers  reading comprehension  as  a  linear  process.  The  model  lays  emphasis  on  comprehending  the reading material word by word, but ignore the importance of the context. As a result, some readers can’t get the points of the text though they are familiar with every single word  in  it.  As  the  the  reading  comprehension  is  regarded  as  a  linear  process  in  the model, the processes are as follows. To start with, readers perceive the features of the letters in the source text. Then, readers are apt to associate these features, in turn, to recognize  letters.  Next,  they  unite  the  letters  to  recognize  spelling  paradigm.  Then, readers  connects  the  paradigm  with  words,  and  then  continue  successively  on sentences and paragraphs. Finally, processing is achieved.
Wang Huijing and Li Xia (2011) point out that in the bottom-up reading model, we  need  to  master  the  new  words  and  structures  first.  In  addition,  they  believe  the model is a fundamental process to use in reading but it should be enhanced by other additional ideas and strategies. 
Zhang Huaitao (2014) believes the bottom-up model is based on the reading texts. Readers continuously integrate the input information from the moment that they look at the written language till they get the meaning of it.
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Chapter 3 Research Design ·························· 19
3.1 Research questions ······························ 19
3.2 Subjects ······································· 19
3.3 Instruments and methodology ··························· 19
Chapter 4 Results and Discussion ····························· 32
4.1 Results and discussion of the Questionnaire 1 ···························· 32
4.2 Results and discussion of the pre-test ········································· 39
4.3 Results and discussion of class observation ································ 40
Chapter 5 Conclusion ···························· 48
5.1 Findings of the research ························ 48
5.2 Implications ······································· 49
5.3 Limitations and prospects ······························· 50

Chapter 4 Results and Discussion

4.1 Results and discussion of the Questionnaire 1
Before the  experiment,  a  questionnaire  was  conducted  in  both  the  control  class (  50  students  )  and  the  experimental  class  (  50  students  )  in  order  to  investigate students’ current reading conditions and the situation of the English reading class. The data of the questionnaires were analyzed afterwards. The results are shown as follows.
Table 4.1 The students’ interest
Table 4.1 The students’ interest 
As can be seen from the above data, the results are very close. The data shows that a large number of the students don’t have much interest in English reading class. As a saying goes, the best teacher to learn is interest. This statistics can illustrate why the students’ English reading comprehension ability are poor in rural minority junior high  schools.  It  also  indicates  that  the  teachers  need  to  figure  out  some  ways  to increase students’ interest in reading so as to improve their reading ability. 
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Chapter 5 Conclusion

5.1 Findings of the research
Firstly, the author finds out the existing problems of English reading in Zaima Middle  School  through  Questionnaire  1.  Besides,  a  large  number  of  the  students  do not  have  much  interest  in  English  reading  class.  And  their  reading  comprehension ability  is  poor.  A  lot  of  them  hardly  ever  use  reading  strategies  and  tools  like dictionary in their reading process. In addition, the teachers are used to adopting the bottom-up  model  in  reading  teaching.  They  pay  much  attention  to  vocabulary  and grammar  but  neglect  to  develop  students’  reading  strategies  and  introduce  the background  knowledge  to  help  students  gain  a  better  understanding  of  the  reading material. What’s more, the reading class is more like a one-man show of the teachers as  they  usually  present  it  by  himself/herself  but  seldom  have  discussions  or  ask questions. As a result, the students get used to just listen carefully to the teacher and take notes in class instead of being a part of it and understand the text actively.
Secondly, we can draw a conclusion that the interactive reading model plays an effective role in English reading after the experiment according to the analyzed data of  the  tests.  The  data  shows  that  there  is  significant  difference  in  reading comprehension  ability  in  the  experimental  class  before  and  after  the  experiment. Moreover,  according  to  the  collected  data  of  the  Questionnaire  2,  almost  all  the students like the interactive reading model and a lot of them hope the teacher can keep applying it in reading class in the future. Besides, a large proportion of them think the model  increases  their  interest  in  English  reading  from  the  compared  data  of  the  two questionnaires and enhances their reading speed. What’s more, it is very obvious that the percentage of using reading strategies like skimming and scanning has increased by comparing the data from the two questionnaires. 
reference(omitted)

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