初中英语隐性分层教学实施现状的调查思考

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论文字数:38845 论文编号:sb2021110614590339509 日期:2021-11-21 来源:硕博论文网
本文是一篇英语论文,本文通过问卷调查、课堂观察和访谈等方式收集的相关数据分析,我们得出了初中英语隐性分层教学的实施现状:隐性分层教学有助于在不同层次上提高学生的自信心和自主学习能力。多数教师具有隐性分层教学的意识,分层教学方式多样化;在形式上,可以满足不同层次学生的学习需求。然而,大多数教师在教学活动的设计上缺乏层次针对性,很少有教师能够利用异质群体的构建作为隐性分层教学的有效辅助教学手段。

Chapter 1  Introduction

1.1 Research Background
The value orientation of the basic education curriculum reform in China in 2001 is for the development of every student. This means that we should change the disadvantages of traditional education, such as single goal, teacher orientation, mechanical teaching methods and so on. For the healthy development of every student, students’ scientific literacy must be cultivated in our education. Emphasis is placed on the cultivation of their knowledge and skills,  process  and  methods,  and  emotional  attitudes  and  values.  The  New  English Curriculum Standards (2011) emphasizes its basic idea that the English curriculum should be oriented to all students and focus  on quality education; it pays special attention to each student’s emotion, stimulate their interest in learning English, and help them establish a sense of achievement and self-confidence in learning; students should be highlighted and individual differences should be respected. Therefore, Covertly Stratified English Teaching in  junior  middle  school  is  helpful  to  implement  the  basic  ideas  of  the  New  Curriculum Standards  and  meet  practical  needs  of  curriculum  reform.  At  present,  researches  on Covertly  Stratified  Teaching  in  our  country  mainly  focus  on the  applied  ones  combined with disciplines, segments, etc., and changes of students in this discipline or segment under it.  However,  related  studies  on  the  current  situation  of  the  implementation  of  Covertly Stratified Teaching are relatively fewer, let  alone junior high school students  as  research subjects.  It’s  in  junior  middle  school  that the  initial  and  critical  polarization  appears  in students. 
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1.2 Research Purpose
This study plans to collect relevant data through questionnaire, classroom observation and interview. From the data  analysis, it aims to explore the implementation situation  of Covertly Stratified English Teaching in junior middle school, including the understanding of this teaching mode, its practical implementation, teaching effects, and existing problems, and further put forward some suggestions to improve practical English teaching. It will be further  in  line  with  the  basic  educational  concept  of  China’s  New  English  Curriculum Standard  that  highlights  students’  dominant  status  and  respecting  students’  individual differences, so as to promote the development of every  student.  Furthermore,  this  study also  aims  to  enrich  English  teaching  theory  and  provide  reference  for  English  teaching and research in primary and secondary schools. 
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Chapter 2  Literature Review 

2.1 Related Definitions of Stratified Teaching
2.1.1 Definition and Classification of Stratified Teaching
There  are  various  expressions  of  Stratified  Teaching,  such  as  ability  grouping, tracking, streaming, grouping, setting, etc. During the development of Stratified Teaching in  history,  its connotation and  forms have  been constantly enriched, and  it  is difficult to define its concept accurately nowadays. In short, Stratified Teaching means that  teachers scientifically  divide  students  into  different  groups  according  to  their  knowledge  basis, ability  level and potential tendency  and treat them differently. These groups get the best development  in  the  appropriate  stratification  strategy  and  interaction  of  teachers  (Hu Qingfang,  2016).  Stratified  Teaching,  in  fact,  has  become  a  general  pronoun  nowadays, from  its  initial  hierarchical  teaching  to  a  variety  of  forms  to  adapt  to  the  changing requirements of education and teaching. 
Among them, the following modes have a deep influence in educational development:
(a)  Class-streaming  Teaching:  on  the  premise  of  maintaining  original  teaching administrative class, students in several classes are divided into multiple groups based on their  knowledge  and  ability  level,  so  that  they  can  carry  out  class  streaming  learning according to their own levels and accept the same content but different breadth and depth of teaching  content,  while  other  disciplines  continue  to  be  completed  in  the  original administrative class.
(b)  Stratified  Monitoring:  it  mainly  emphasizes  that  students  choose  the corresponding learning level by  themselves  based on their own learning situations.  At the end  of  the  semester,  a  level-adjustment  will  be  made  by  school  according  to  students’ efforts and the status of follow-up learning in a term.
(c)  Ability  Grouping:  schools  divide  students  into  different  classes  or  groups according to their comprehensive ability or overall academic performance, so as to reduce the heterogeneity of groups (Slavin, 1990).
(d) Covertly Stratified Teaching: teachers divide students into different levels in their minds,  and  then  set  targeted  teaching  objectives  in  different  levels,  adopt  hierarchical teaching, evaluation and other teaching methods to meet practical learning requirements of different students. 
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2.2 Theoretical Bases
2.2.1 Optimization of Teaching Process Theory
―Optimization of teaching process‖ put forward by Soviet educator Babanski means that teachers should choose the best scheme to organize the teaching process purposefully, which can ensure that the solution of teaching and educational tasks can achieve the best effect  within  the  specified  time  (Gu  Mingyuan  &  Meng  Fanhua,  2001). ―Optimal‖ is a relative  and  conditional  concept,  and  different  conditions  lead  to  different  optimal standards,  which  requires  teachers  to  arrange  teaching  contents  according  to  students’ actual  learning  ability,  and  to  understand  the  characteristics  of  various  educational viewpoints and methods  as  well  as their appropriate application scope, so as to use them reasonably  and  selectively.  Moreover,  the  following  teaching  principles  put  forward  by Babanski are of guiding significance to the forms and purpose effect in Covertly Stratified Teaching (Yang Weiguo, 2013): 
Firstly,  the principle of teaching acceptability  reveals  that teaching materials should make  students  feel  challenging  to  their  maximum  extent  possible.  The  effective development  of  teachers’  teaching  process,  the  prominence  of  teaching  emphasis,  the adoption of different teaching methods to help students, and so on, which coincides with the fact that Covertly Stratified Teaching requires multi-level teaching methods in different teaching links. 
The principle of optimal combination  in various teaching organizations requires the optimal  combination  of  the  whole  class,  group  work  and  individual  forms  in  teaching organization.  The  whole-class  activities  can  promote  the  formation  of  collective consciousness and the atmosphere of mutual assistance; group learning activities meet the needs  of  students  with  different  learning  basics  to  a  large  extent;  individual  forms  of activities require teachers to help students use their maximum ability to complete learning tasks independently. Therefore, it is particularly necessary to realize the Covertly Stratified Teaching with the optimal combination of the three forms of teaching organization.
The  principle  of  promoting  active  learning  requires  teachers  to  diversify  teaching methods  to  ensure  that  students  at  different  levels  can  actively  participate  in  learning activities, adopt diversified teaching activities to improve students’ enthusiasm for learning materials, maintain appropriate help for students, and encourage students at different levels to develop independent learning ability. 
Table 3.1 Reliability Statistics
Table 3.1 Reliability Statistics
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Chapter 3 Research Design .................................... 16
3.1 Research Subjects ........................................... 16
3.2 Research Questions ................................. 16
3.3 Research Instruments ................................................... 16
Chapter 4 Results Analysis and Discussion .............................. 21
4.1 Results Analysis and Discussion on Questionnaire .................................... 21
4.2 Results Analysis and Discussion on Classroom Observation ..................... 29
4.3 Results Analysis and Discussion on Interview Record ............................... 31
Chapter 5 Main Findings and Suggestions ....................... 44
5.1 Main Findings .............................................. 44
5.2 Pedagogic Suggestions ......................................... 45

Chapter 5  Main Findings and Suggestions

5.1 Main Findings
Through the analysis of the relevant data collected in questionnaire, combined with the  results  of  interview  and  classroom  observation,  the  following  main  findings  are summarized.
1)  The Present Implementation Situation of Covertly Stratified English Teaching in Junior Middle School
Firstly, students have a good acceptance for Covertly Stratified English Teaching, and most  of  them  have  improved  their  autonomous  learning  ability  and  self-confidence  in English  learning.  Teachers  give  different  guidance  for  students’  autonomous  learning  at different  levels.  For  example,  for  students  with  a  relatively  solid  foundation  and  good thinking  quality,  teachers  more  intend  to  give  priority  to their  self-study,  supplementing with guidance, and encouraging them to read more original reading materials such as Black Brin,  which  can  tap  their  learning  potential  with  English  thinking  cultivated;  as  for middle-level students, teachers will explain in depth the problems they do not understand in class;  for  students  with  poor  foundation,  in  addition  to  simple,  patient  and  meticulous explanation, teachers will let them learn to make full use of the peer resources around them and learn to ask others for help, which is also a kind of self-study ability suitable for them. 
Secondly,  most  teachers have the teaching consciousness of Stratified  Teaching and have  adopted  various  hierarchical  teaching  methods.  Adhering  to the  ―student-oriented‖ teaching concept, teachers respect students’ individual differences, and also make  full use of a variety of teaching methods to meet their learning needs. Through the survey data, we can see that in the actual teaching, teachers have adopted diversified hierarchical teaching methods  in  teaching  organization,  teaching  materials,  individual  guidance,  teaching activities, etc. 
Table 4.1 Students’ English Grades
Table 4.1 Students’ English Grades 
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Chapter 6  Conclusion

6.1 Summary
According  to the analysis of the relevant data collected by  means of questionnaire, classroom  observation  and  interview,  we  obtain  the  current  implementation  situation  of Covertly Stratified English Teaching in junior middle school: Covertly  Stratified  English Teaching  is  of  great  help  to  improve  the  students’  self-confidence  and  autonomous learning  ability  at  different  levels.  Most  teachers  have  the  consciousness  of  Covertly Stratified Teaching, and their hierarchical teaching methods are diversified; in form, they can meet the learning needs of students at different levels. However, most teachers lack of hierarchical pertinence in the design of teaching activities and fewer teachers can use the construction of heterogeneous groups as an efficient auxiliary teaching means of Covertly Stratified Teaching. 
There  are  also  some  problems  in  the  process  of  implementation:  teachers’ understanding of Covertly Stratified Teaching mode is still not comprehensive enough, and the required professional teaching ability  is also deficient. This leads to the emergence of problems  such  as  lack  of  heterogeneous  group  construction,  fewer  stratified  classroom activities  and  inaccurate  stratification  of  questioning  subjects.  Teachers’  professional quality should also be improved with the improvement of teaching objectives. 
In  view  of  the  problems  found  above,  this  study  puts  forward  the  following suggestions:  firstly,  English  teachers  should  establish  a  correct  concept  of  Covertly Stratified  Teaching,  focusing  on  ―covert‖,  ―stratification‖  and  ―heterogeneous  group construction‖,  put this  teaching  model  into  practice;  secondly,  English  teachers  should make great efforts to activate the teaching process and put the Covertly Stratified Teaching into  practice  in  the  key  aspects  such  as  stratifying  lesson  preparation,  stratifying questioning subjects, enriching innovative and  stratified  teaching activities, implementing student-based teaching reflection and so on; in addition, Covertly Stratified Teaching also has higher requirements for teachers’ professional quality. In order to better implement it, teachers should improve their professional ethics and information literacy in line with the times to meet the learning needs of students at different levels. 
reference(omitted)

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