《电动车技术说明》(节选)英译汉 翻译实践报告

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论文字数:43666 论文编号:sb2021111115011639576 日期:2021-11-29 来源:硕博论文网

本文是一篇英语论文,本翻译实践从技术英语文本《电动汽车技术解释》中选取第九章和第十章作为翻译材料,整个实践是在奈达功能对等理论的指导下进行的。技术英语将英语与不同领域的科技知识紧密结合,在专业语言中不加修饰地呈现事物的真实面貌,陈述客观事实。因此,科技英语具有逻辑严密、科学准确、语言结构清晰简洁的特点。不可避免地,译文也应具有专业性、客观性和准确性,以及清晰流畅的特点。本实践报告展示并分析了在词汇层面、句法层面和语篇层面实现这一目标所应采用的方法和技巧。

 

Chapter 1 Introduction

 

1.1   Introduction of the Source Text

The  source  text  is  written  by  James  Larminie  and  John  Lowry.  Dr.  John  Lowry  is  an engineer who was once a member of the academic community. He co-authored the first edition of Electric Vehicle Technology Explained with Jon Lowry, which was published by John Wiley & Sons in 2003.

The source text consists of eleven chapters, and the translator has taken Chapter Nine and Chapter Ten as the translation materials. Chapter Nine mainly talks about the design of ancillary systems,  including  heating  and  cooling  systems,  the  controls,  power  steering,  tyres  and  wing mirrors,  aerials  and  luggage  racks,  and  electric  vehicle  recharging  and  refueling  systems.  And electric vehicles and the environment are discussed in Chapter Ten where the author researches the  alternative  and  sustainable  energy  and  vehicle  pollution.  This  book  is  useful  to  academics and  students  majoring  in  electrical  engineering,  mechanics,  and  power  and  automation.  It  is  a handbook on the theory of electric vehicle design and application.

The characteristics of technical English are manifested in several aspects. First of all, at the lexical level, scientific writing is precise and compact in the plenty use of technical words and semi-technical  words.  Scientific  English  is  a  language  which  is  used  to  state  what  happens  or appears  in  the  scientific  and  technological  fields  and  describes  laws,  characteristics,  and processes  of  such  fields,  so  it  tends  to  be  objective  and  accurate  with  logical  relationship  and rigorous  structure,  so  as  to  better  present  the  development  and  research  of  the  scientific  and technological  areas.  At  the  syntactic  level,  nominalization,  complex  sentences  and  passive sentences are extensively used and there is also a higher frequency of conditional sentences in EST (English of Science and Technology). 

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Figure 9.3 Schematic of a heat pump

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1.2 Significance of the Translation Task
It is well known that science and technology are the first productive force. Keeping up with the  current  cutting-edge  information  of  science  and  technology,  we  can  have  a  voice  in technological development. As governments and automobile manufacturing businesses at home and  abroad  are  conducting  a  research  of  new  energy  vehicles,  the  development  of  electrical vehicles have been greatly facilitated. Volkswagen of Germany displayed a pure electric concept car E-up at the sub-auto show in 2009, which is equipped with lithium-ion power batteries. Japan has set a tactic goal for the development and promotion of fuel cell vehicles. It plans to produce 5  million  fuel  cell  vehicles  domestically  by  2020.  By  2030,  fuel  cell  vehicles  will  be  fully promoted. Countries such as the United States, Japan, Germany, and Israel have all formulated plans  for  the  promotion  of  pure  electric  vehicles,  and  the  building  of  charging  systems  for electric vehicles is rapidly following up. 
The start of the research and development of new energy vehicles in China was very late, but  the  administration  attaches  great  importance  to  it.  Since  the  “Eighth  Five-Year  Plan”,  the research of new energy vehicles has been a major national project. In 2001, the “Electric Vehicle Major  Technology  Special  Project”  was  established.  According  to  China's  “Tenth  Five-Year Plan” of science and technology development plan, the government has given strong support to electric vehicle projects. With the fast development of China's new energy technology, more and more new energy vehicles have been produced and are playing an increasingly important role in people’s  daily  life.  This  is  the  reason  why  the  translator  chooses  Electric  Vehicle  Technology Explained as the translation material.
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Chapter 2 The Functional Equivalence Theory

2.1 An Overview of the Theory
As  we  know,  the  famous  linguist  Nida  proposes  that  “translation  is  a  representation  or reaction in one language of what is written or said in another language. Translation consists in reproducing in the receptor language the closest equivalent of the source-language message, first in terms of meaning, and secondly in terms of style.” (Nida, 2003:12)  
Nida  has  developed  his  theory  based  on  his  own  translation  practice,  which  eventually becomes one of the scriptures of translation studies. The central concept of Nida’s hypothesis is “functional equivalence”. The implication of “functional equivalence” is that translation does not engage  in  a  rigid  correspondence  of  literal  meaning,  but  a  functional  equivalence  between  two languages.  It  tries  to  create  translations  that  accord  with  the  semantics  of  the  source  text  and retain the cultural features of the source text. However, the cultures of two languages are totally different. Therefore, it is impossible for a translated text to totally reproduce the cultural features of the source text, but the translator should at least strive to make the translation intelligible and understandable to the target readers. If meaning and culture cannot be achieved simultaneously, the form equivalence can be dropped and priority should be given to the equivalence of meaning. In this manner the translator could alter the form of the source text so as to attain semantic and cultural equivalence to the source text. If the conversion in form is still inadequate to reproduce the  original  semantics  and  culture,  the  translation  technique  of  “Recreation”  can  be  adopted  to cope  with  this  problem,  so  that  the  target  language  is  consistent  with  the  source  language  in meaning.  “recreation”  means  the  conversion  of  the  structure  of  the  source  language  into  the structure  of  the  target  language.  In  other  words,  the  translator  could  utilize  vocabularies  of  the target language to illustrate the cultural implication of the source language.
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2.2 Its Guiding Significance
Electric vehicles are growing in popularity in the last few years, and technical translations of  electric  vehicles  are  gradually  increasing.  Taking  the  Functional  Equivalence  Theory  as  the guiding theory, the translator proceeds to do the translation practice from three aspects of lexical level,  syntactic  level  and  textual  level,  and  tries  to  do  her  bit  for  the  exchange  of  information between domestic and foreign markets. 
According  to  the  Functional  Equivalence  Theory,  the  translated  text  should  achieve semantic  equivalence  with  the  source  text,  which  mainly  includes  semantic  equivalence  at  the vocabulary, sentence, and text levels. Scientific English is characterized by brevity and exactness. And the frequent use of technical terms and acronyms is one of the major features of technical English.  Translators  should  make  a  clear  understanding  of  the  connotation  of  every  individual technical word, and figure out its definite meaning in the source text, which is the fundamental requirement to achieve lexical equivalence. But lexical equivalence alone is not enough. A large number  of  passive  sentences,  nominalized  structures  and  complex  clauses  often  appear  in technical  English.  Meaning  equivalence  at  sentence  level,  therefore, is equally important. Only when the translator fully understands the sentence structure of the source text can it be possible for  the  translator  to  transfer  information  accurately  and  correctly.  All  in  all,  functional equivalence  at  both  the  lexical  level  and  the  syntactic  level  is  essential  in  scientific  English translation.
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Chapter 3 Description of the Translation Procedure .............................. 6
3.1 Pre-translation Preparation ........................................ 6
3.2 While-translation Process............................................ 7
3.3 Post-translation Proofreading ..................................... 7
Chapter 4 Case Analysis.............................................. 9
4.1 Translation at Lexical Level ................................................ 9
4.1.1 Translation of Technical Terms .......................................... 9
4.1.2 Conversion of Part of Speech............................................... 13
Chapter 5 Conclusion .......................................... 27
5.1 A Summary of the Translation Practice........................................... 27
5.2 Suggestions for Future Translation Practice............................... 28
 

Chapter 4 Case Analysis

 

4.1 Translation at LexicalLevel

The famous scholar Fang Mengzhi once compared common English words with those used in  scientific  and  technological  texts,  and  summed  up  the  lexical  features  of  scientific  and technological English. He believes that, compared with ordinary English words, the structure of technical  English  words  is  relatively  simple.  Words  have  a  wide  range  of  meanings  and  have great plasticity, while emotion is not attached to the words in scientific and technological English. Therefore, accuracy and professionalism are the cornerstones of translation practice. 

4.1.1 Translation of Technical Terms

As we all know, a challenge the translator has to confront is that there are plentiful technical terms to look up in dictionaries or in relevant references. If you don’t comprehend the meaning of  technical  terms,  you  can’t  have  a  smooth  understanding  of  the  source  text,  not  to  mention translating  it.  It  is  hard  for  translators  who  are  lacking  in  knowledge  of  the  source  text  to translate  some  obscure  vocabulary.  As  these  vocabularies  are  very  professional,  their  meaning can’t  be  reached  through  general  tools,  and  it  requires  the  translator  to  use  other  methods  to translate  them.  The  translator  will  summarize  the  methods  that  she  has  adopted  to  handle technical terms in the following part.

Figure 9.4 Stick controller

Figure 9.4 Stick controller

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Chapter 5 Conclusion

 

5.1 A Summary of the Translation Practice

This  translation  practice  selects  Chapter  Nine  and  Chapter Ten  from  the  technical  English text  Electric  Vehicle  Technology  Explained  as  translation  materials  and  the  whole  practice  is carried  out  under  the  guidance  of  Nida’s  Functional  Equivalence  Theory.  Technical  English closely  combines  English  with  scientific  and  technological  knowledge  of  different  fields, presents  the  exact  appearance  of  things  without  embellishment  in  professional  language,  and states  objective  facts.  Therefore,  technical  English  has  the  characteristics  of  rigorous  logic, scientific  accuracy,  and  clear  and  concise  language  structure.  Inevitably,  the  translated  text should also carry the features of professionalism, objectivity and accuracy, as well as clarity and fluency. This practice report demonstrates and analyzes the methods and techniques that should be adopted to achieve this purpose at the lexical level, the syntactic level and the textual level.

At the lexical level, technical English uses a large number of technical and semi-technical words. Translators should resort to every means available, such as dictionaries, on-line resources and parallel texts and so on, to acquire the exact meaning of each word. 

At  the  syntactic  level,  although  technical  English  has  significant  syntactic  features,  it  still uses  the  grammatical  rules  and  sentence  structures  of  ordinary  English.  The  translator  should have  a  good  knowledge  of  grammar  and  make  a  meticulous  analysis  of  the  sentence  structure before doing the translation.

reference(omitted)