国际贸易视角下独立哈萨克斯坦经济发展(1991-2017)分析

来源: www.sblunwen.com 作者:vicky 发布时间:2019-10-10 论文字数:72365字
论文编号: sb2019091613123827798 论文语言:English 论文类型:硕士毕业论文
本文是一篇国际贸易论文,本文论述了哈萨克斯坦自获得“独立哈萨克斯坦”地位之日起的经济发展期和 1991-2017 年的社会经济转型期,以及危机后哈萨克斯坦经济可持续平衡发展的战略方向
本文是一篇国际贸易论文,本文分析了哈萨克斯坦共和国第一任总统纳扎尔巴耶夫(Nursultan Nazarbayev)和哈萨克斯坦政府在改善哈萨克斯坦经济状况方面所采取的方案和改革的利弊,以及这些方案和改革对现代经济发展的影响。最后一章审议了哈萨克斯坦共和国以经济互动和伙伴关系为基础的对外经济举措以及哈萨克斯坦共和国对外经济战略的主要优先事项。

1. Introduction

1.1 Research background (研究背景)
In the 90  years of the XX century, the formation of new states, formerly  within the framework of the unified economy of the USSR, was marked. Among them is the Republic of Kazakhstan, which became independent in 1991.
On  the  way  to  genuine  sovereignty,  Kazakhstan  faced  a  number  of  difficulties: the economic crisis, social tension, a decline in the living standard of the population, unemployment,  environmental  problems.  To  overcome  them  and  to  know  a  worthy place  in  human  society,  it  was  necessary  to  solve  the  problems:  the  restructuring  of the  economy,  its  reorientation  to  modern  high  technology  industries;  creating  a socially-oriented  market  based  on  the  principle  of  equality  of  opportunity; privatization  of  property,  price  liberalization,  sound  investment  policy;  formation  of the rule of law state and civil society institutions; development of culture, education, science.
On the wave of increased interest in the political and socio-economic processes in the  post-Soviet  space,  issues  related  to  the  economic  and  social  development  of Kazakhstan  in  the  late  20th  century  and  early  21st  centuries  also  became  topical. Among  these  issues,  a  special  place  is  occupied  by  the  problem  concerning  the economic  growth  of  the  Republic  of  Kazakhstan,  and  its  qualitative  growth.  The Kazakhstan economy is more based on active development of oil and gas and mineral resources. It is this resource factor that determines its most important parameters, and ensures economic growth. But on the other hand, this factor can worsen a number of quality characteristics. At the same time, the growth of Kazakhstan's GDP is largely dependent on the world's conjectural commodity markets.
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1.2. The Significance of Research (研究意义)
The novelty of this work is the development of system approaches in the study of the development of the economy of Kazakhstan since the adoption of independence.
The  format  of  economic  development  of  the  Republic  of  Kazakhstan  is considered through various economic reforms of the country, the study of problems in economic  policy,  and  with  the  use  of  tools  of  economic,  sociological,  historical analysis.
The  purpose  of  this  work  is  to  determine  the  problems  and  prospects  of  the economy of Kazakhstan since independence and in the modern period.
Based on the purpose, the objectives of this thesis are:
(1) Describe the Kazakhstan model of the mixed economy;
(2) To consider becoming the financial and credit system of Kazakhstan;
(3) Explore  a  new  concept  of  regional  development  in  Independent Kazakhstan;
(4) Show the transformation of the national economy management system;
(5) Analyze the development of the national innovation system of Kazakhstan;
(6) Give the characteristic of social policy in the period of market reforms;
(7) To consider foreign-economic initiatives of the Republic of Kazakhstan
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2. The main stages, features and trends of formation and development of the economy of Independent Kazakhstan

2.1 Kazakhstan's mixed economy model (哈萨克斯坦的混合经济模型)
The second half of the twentieth century, heralded the global transformations in the social development in different forms of realization. There are general trends in the  diversity  of  their  social  and  economic  progress,  leading  to  overcome  class-antagonistic contradictions, to quality change the orientations and values development, balance economic and economic element in the public interest. The transformation of socio-economic  relations  and  the  formation  of  a  new  type  of  social  system  mean  a qualitatively new model of management, based on global trends. The new economic model is a mixed economy.
The  formation  of  Kazakhstan's  model  of  mixed  economy  began  in  the conditions  of  economic  recession  caused  by  the  break  of  traditional  economic relations, price liberalization and other trends. In order to create a national structure of its  economy,  adequate  to  market  requirements,  Kazakhstan  must  go  a  long  way,  to determine  its  priorities  in  all  directions  and  at  all  levels  of  society  and  economy. Imperatives of the Kazakhstan model of mixed economy are: the reintegration of the state  and  the  market;  recombination  of  property  relations;  the  reintegration  of  the public  and  private  sectors  of  the  economy;  social  orientation  of  economy;  the internationalization of the economy [1 p.1-3].
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2.2. Formation of the financial and credit system of Kazakhstan (哈萨克斯坦金融和信贷体系的形成)
During the 28-year period of its existence as an independent state, Kazakhstan has passed a difficult way of restoration and construction of a different type of socio-economic  formation.  Economic  reforms  on  formation  of  statehood  and  definition  of the  place  in  a  world  economic  system  became  the  most  significant.  Today  it  is fashionable  to  note  that  the  economic  policy  of  Kazakhstan  is  an  example  of accounting  of  international  experience,  the  theoretical  conclusions  and recommendations directed to successful result.
The  fundamental  and  rapid  transformation  of  the  economy  contributed  to  the creation of a financial system that meets basic international standards and includes the insurance and pension services sector, the banking system, the securities market and investment funds. 
As  the  most  acceptable  for  emerging  economy  the  two-level  banking  system was  accepted.  The  National  Bank  which  represents  the  top  (first)  level  of  a  banking system  became  the  central  bank  of  the  state.  The  objectives,  principles  of  activity, legal status and powers of the National Bank are defined by the Law "On the National Bank  of  the  Republic  of  Kazakhstan".  The  national  Bank  has  begun  to  regulate  and supervise certain banking activities within its competence and has contributed to  the creation  of  General  conditions  for  the  functioning  of  banks  and  organizations performing  certain  types  of  banking  operations.  The  regulating  and  supervising functions of National bank were directed to maintenance of stability of monetary and credit  system  of  the  Republic  of  Kazakhstan,  protection  of  interests  of  creditors  of banks, their investors and clients. Discount rate, interventions in the foreign exchange market, setting standards of the minimum reserves, etc. became the main instruments of monetary policy of National bank. 
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3. 危机后哈萨克斯坦经济可持续平衡发展的战略方向和机制 ............................41
3.1 哈萨克斯坦国家创新体系的发展 .................................. 41
3.2 市场改革时期的社会政策 ........................................ 50
3.3 人力资本发展政策是哈萨克斯坦创新经济形成的主要因素 ............ 57
4. 哈萨克斯坦共和国与主要亚洲国家的合作 .................................66
4.1 哈萨克斯坦共和国与中国之间的经济合作潜力 ...................... 66
4.2 哈萨克斯坦和日本:互利合作 .................................... 73
4.3 哈萨克斯坦共和国发展与大韩民国经济合作的倡议 .................. 77
5.哈萨克斯坦共和国对外经济倡议 ....................................81
5.1.哈萨克斯坦作为经济合作和伙伴关系基础的欧亚倡议 ................ 81
5.2.哈萨克斯坦共和国对外经济战略和对外贸易进出口业务的主要优先事项..................93
5.3 世界经济一体化是实施 “哈萨克斯坦-2050” 战略的先决条件 ...... 100

5. External economic initiatives of the Republic of Kazakhstan

5.1. Kazakhstan's Eurasian initiatives as a basis for economic cooperation and partnership (哈萨克斯坦作为经济合作和伙伴关系基础的欧亚倡议)
For  twenty-eight  years  of  independence  in  the  Republic  of  Kazakhstan  there was  a  full-scale  transformation  of  society  and  active  integration  of  the  national economy  into  the  world  economy.  There  has  been  significant  progress  of  the  young States  in  the  implementation  of  socio-economic  modernization,  the  formation  and development of an efficient market economy, the implementation of a balanced a lot of  vector  external  policy,  increase  of  the  international  authority  of  Kazakhstan. Indisputable  and  internationally  recognized  initiatives  of  the  first  President  of Kazakhstan N. Nazarbayev, to open communication and cooperation with neighboring countries and the international community as a whole.
Today  Kazakhstan  is  recognized  as  the  undisputed  leader  in  the  integration processes  not  only  in  the  CIS,  but  in  the  Eurasian  dimension  as  a  whole.  In  recent years,  the  role,  prestige  and  influence  of  Kazakhstan  in  Central  Asia  have  increased significantly. Nur-Sultan (Astana) has proved that in certain crisis situations (change of  power  in  Kyrgyzstan)  it  is  able  to  participate  almost  equally  in  the  settlement  of regional crises. The reasons for the growing international weight of Kazakhstan lay in the  apparent  economic  progress  of  the  country,  the  success  of  the  reforms, consolidation  of  the  elites  and  the  overall  national  rise  in  society,  and  in  a dysfunctional situation - political, economic and international - of our neighbors in the region [34, p. 185].
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6.  Conclusion

reference(omitted)

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