国际贸易视角下制度质量对出口的影响:来自巴基斯坦的经验证据

日期:2020-09-15 作者: 硕博论文网 编辑:vicky 点击次数:139
论文价格:300 论文编号: sb2020083015100633034 论文字数:22653 所属栏目:国际贸易论文
论文地区:中国 论文语种:English 论文用途:硕士毕业论文 Master Thesis
本文是一篇国际贸易论文研究,本文以巴基斯坦为例,运用ARDL模型和时间序列数据,对制度质量对出口的影响进行了实证研究,通过对不同文献的研究,了解了现实情况,并从不同角度得到
多数研究者的观点。以出口为因变量,制度质量(IQ)、汇率(ER)、人力资本(HC)、国内生产总值(GDP)和外国直接投资(FDI)为自变量,这些变量被用来了解制度质量对一国出口绩效的影响。研究表明,制度质量对一国的出口绩效有着巨大的影响,制度对一国的出口绩效起着推动作用,制度强则出口绩效正,制度弱则出口表现将是负面的。

Chapter1: Introduction

1.1 Background
“Exports”  are  driving  force  for  any  country’s  economy  but  it  does  not  work alone, there is an another force as well which directs it to work and that is known as “institutions” without institutions exports are just as the car without tyres, so in this example institutions are playing role of tyres and export is the car, where it shows the direct relation between both of them. There are lot of evidence present which shows the  direct  relation  between  them  and  is  said  that  countries  who  are  having  better institutions gives more trade to the country (Kraay, 2003).
Those  countries  who  are  having  weak  institutions  are  very  low  in  exports  but  those countries  which  are  having  strong  institutions  or  good  institutional  environment  are tend to have more bilateral trade, institutional quality is considered as very important source  which  can  give  a  country  long  run  benefits  by  trade  according  to  many empirical results.Basically these institutions provide grounds for smooth execution of trade, so it depends on the institutions if they are strong they will provide the needed ground  and  if  they  are  weak  so  they  are  not  able  to  provide  the  needed  ground  and which affects the export performance of the country.
Those  countries  who  are  having  weak  institutions  are  very  low  in  exports  but  those countries  which  are  having  strong  institutions  or  good  institutional  environment  are tend to have more bilateral trade, institutional quality is considered as very important source  which  can  give  a  country  long  run  benefits  by  trade  according  to  many empirical results.Basically these institutions provide grounds for smooth execution of trade, so it depends on the institutions if they are strong they will provide the needed ground  and  if  they  are  weak  so  they  are  not  able  to  provide  the  needed  ground  and which affects the export performance of the country.
........................

1.2 Institutional QualityAs  most  of  the  research  and  study  has  witnessed  the  importance  of  institutions  with respect  to  exports  of  a  country,  every  result  has  seen  positive  impact  on  the  export performance of a country, so in this portion there will be a detailed study of Pakistani institutions due which Pakistan’s exports are not doing well since decades.
The  export  performance  is  dependent  on  the  institutional  quality  which  clearly highlight  that  Pakistani  institutions  are  not  playing  their  role  the  way  it  should  play due to which there has always been seen the decrease in the country’s exports.
It has been witnessed that the institutions which are weak gives weak  export growth which force the economic agents to give low economic returns via exports, while on the  other  hand  good  and  strong  institutions  gives  economic  returns  at  high  level  via exports as when the institutional quality is good and strong they reduces the insecurity which  results  in  more  efficient  work,  The  overall  country’s  export  productivity  is dependent on the quality of institutions, when the institutions are well developed and negative  in  corruptions  they  give  higher  export  growth  for  the  country  Saima,  Nasir and Muhammad, (2014).
It  has  been  also  said  that  weak  institutions  changes  the  direction  of  the  resources  to unproductive  sectors  which  start  promoting  rent  seeking  activities  while  the  strong institutions  negate  the  rent  seeking  activities  behaviour  and  gives  economic  growth including the export performance Iqbal and Daly, (2014).
..........................

Chapter 2: Literature Review

2.1 Importance of Institutional quality
Institutions  are  known  to  be  the  most  important  part  of  any  country,  and specifically institutions are the one which play role in exports as well, it depends on the  strength  of  institutions  which  makes  ground  for  the  exports  of  any  country.If institutions  are  strong  so  they  provide  strong  grounds  for  the  exports  and  export performance is in positive direction, which means good institutions are the factor that makes the performance of export better, detergent which good and strong institutions encourage is research and development which direct effects the export performance of a country, one can say that institutions are having strong impact on the export quality of the country (Faruq, 2011).
Institutions are the one that make rules, policies and agreements and it depends on the how  much  strong  rules,  policies  are  being  made,  the  more  strong  rules  and  policies will  give  rise  in  exports  and  weak  policies  and  rules  will  certainly  do  vice  versa (Henri L.F. de GROOT, 2005).
The  important  aspects  of  institutions  and  their  enforcement  in  the  country  are accepted  all  over  the  world,  so  the  countries  which  are  developed  have  very  strong institutions  with  respect  to  the  countries  which  are  still  developing,  the  countries which  are  still  developing  tends  to  have  weak  institutions  because  of  their  weak political  and  legal  infrastructure,  though  in  developed  countries  it  is  opposite  which make  their  institutions  more  strong  enough,  which  are  able  to  make  ground  for exports  more  suitable  and  their  export  performance  is  more  good  though  the developing countries with weak institutions are unable to take more strong and good decision  because  of  their  weak  skills  in  the  developing  institution  which  do  not provide  more  suitable  ground  for  their  exports  and  because  of  this  their  export performance is not up to the mark (Joseph A. LiPuma, 2011).
.........................

2.2 Institutional Quality and Pakistan’s Institutions
The  literature  has  witnessed  the  importance  of  institutions  and  have  concluded  with dependence  of  exports  on  the  institutional  quality  of  the  country,  the  literature  has seen  lot  of  results  that  there  is  huge  relation  between  the  institutional  quality  and exports.
There  should  be  deep  study  on  the  determinants  of  exports  because  institutional quality is one of the important determinants which is used in making of structure for investors  in  export  oriented  industries,  institutional  quality,  human  capital,  real exchange rate and world exports in different literature shows results that all of them have  significant  results  and  long  run  relation  among  each  other,  at  the  moment  the weak  institutions  have  forced  Pakistan  to  remain  away  from  producing  high  value added  products  which  shows  that  Pakistan  is  not well  equipped  with  the  technology and human capital, if these sectors are improved they can compete globally, (Mangla, 2017).
According  to  the  literature  there  is  huge  impact  of  institutional  quality  on  the economic  growth  which  certainly  shows  that  there  is  significant  relation  between exports  as  well,  the  results  in  the  literature  shows  by  using  panel  ARDL  that  panel causality  is  going  from  institutional  quality  towards  export  which  shows  that  they have huge relation, (Nabila Asghar, 2015) Nabila.
Table 5.2  The ARDL BoundTestResults
..........................

Chapter 3: Export in Pakistan: An Overview ................................ 14
3.1 Background .............................. 14
3.2 Pakistani Exports Figure and Facts .................... 14
Chapter 4:Research Methodology .................................. 22
4.1 Data Sources Collection ................................. 22
4.2 Model .............................. 22
Chapter 5: Results And Discussion .......................... 27

Chapter 5: Results and Discussion
In this chapter we  will analyse the results we  got from the tests that were done later will describe and explain the empirical findings, how those tests were done and which tests were used for analyzing the data is already discussed in chapter 4.
The  order  of  the  tables  will  be  according  to  tests  applied  on  the  data.  To  know whether the variables are stationary or not, we have applied  unit root tests to get the results, Augmented Dickey-Fuller unit root test and Phillips-Perron Unit root test are applied to get the wanted results.
Table 5.1 is showing the Augmented Dickey-Fuller unit root tests and Phillips-Perron Unit root test results, where in the table it is witnessed that the variables are stable, the stability in the results are taking us to apply auto regressive dependent lags (ARDL) tests to know the relations between the variables. Times series data of all the variables from the period 1984-2017 are used.
Table 5.1: The ADF and Phillips-Perron Unit Root Test Results
...........................

Chapter 6: Conclusion
This thesis is presenting the detailed study of the impact of institutional quality on  exports  an  empirical  evidence  from  Pakistan,  in  which  ARDL  model  and  time series data are used, different literatures has been studied to know the realities and to get points of most of the researchers in different perspectives.
The  variables  were  taken  such  as  exports  which  is  dependent  variable,  institutional quality  (IQ),  Exchange  Rate  (ER),  Human  Capital  (HC),  Gross  Domestic  Product (GDP)  and  Foreign  Direct  Investment  (FDI)  are  independent  variables,  and  these variables  have  been  taken  to  know  the  impact  of  institutional  quality  on  export performance of a country.
The  study  has  witnessed  that  institutional  quality  has  huge  impact  on  the  export performance  of  a  country,  institutions  are  playing  the  role  of  driving  force  for  the export  performance  of  a  country,  when  the  institutions  are  strong  then  export performance will be positive but if institutions are weak then export performance will be negative. 
Pakistan has been focused in the study because Pakistani exports didn’t do well since long period of time, though every changing government has given different economic policies  but  unfortunately  Pakistani  exports  didn’t  increase  and  on  other  hands imports were and still increasing, for this purpose a detailed view of Pakistani exports and institutional policies have been explained above.
reference(omitted)

原文地址:http://www.sblunwen.com/gjmylw/33034.html,如有转载请标明出处,谢谢。

您可能在寻找国际贸易论文方面的范文,您可以移步到国际贸易论文频道(http://www.sblunwen.com/gjmylw/)查找


该论文为收费论文,请扫描二维码添加客服人员购买全文。
上一篇:国际贸易视角下跨境并购中“赢家诅咒”现象存在性及影响因素研究
下一篇:没有了