强化型多模态阅读教学模式对初二学生英语阅读焦虑的影响研究

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论文字数:51225 论文编号:sb2021092212134238289 日期:2021-10-11 来源:硕博论文网
笔者认为合作学习是为了完成共同任务而进行的相互学习。在这个过程中,学生们可以一起构建和分享知识,另一方面,他们可以在教室外随时随地利用媒体和互联网继续学习。他们不仅可以自己阅读,还可以评估小组成员的阅读情况。在这一过程中,学生对知识的关注和评价的范围越来越大,学生的焦虑感也会降低。例如,学生在发表意见之前将进行小组讨论。他们的焦虑和错误会因为交换意见而减少。在这个过程中,他们得到及时的反馈和错误的纠正。合作学习还能增强学生的自信心。每个学生的价值观由小组结果反映出来。

Chapter One Introduction

1.1 Background of the Research
The intensive multimodal reading teaching answers the call of the times.
Halliday (1978) proposed that human beings exchange information in a variety of  ways,  and  language  is  just  one  of  them.  Language  includes  written  and  spoken language. In oral communication, the communicator can convey the meaning through tone,  intonation,  speed  of  speech  and  various  body  languages.  In  addition  to  oral language,  written  language  is  equipped  with  complementary  tools  like  images  and charts  to  express  meaning.  Meanwhile,  with  the  development  of  science  and technology,  the  Internet  has  become  the  main  source  of  information,  and  the transmission of information is no longer presented in language. Thus, Language is no longer  the  only  means  of  communication  in  modern  written  discourse.  Multiple sources like newspapers, magazines, advertisements, posters, storybooks, textbooks, encyclopedias, brochures and computer interfaces facilitate our interaction with each other in a multimodal manner (Hu, 2007). The multimodal nature of modern discourse is gaining prominence, and it is said that multimodality is the basic feature of modern discourse. Because of the simplicity of language as the only mode, it can neither bring readers  visual  enjoyment,  nor  convey  rich  meaning,  which  means  the  multimodal discourse is a requirement of modern people.
With the increasingly abundant means of expressing the meaning of discourse in social  activities,  the  traditional  means  of  expressing  meaning  mainly  through language  has  been  gradually  replaced  by  the  combination  of  various  media. Multimodality embodies the normal state of social practice, and becomes an inherent feature  of  present  social  and  cultural  system.  How  is  meaning  generated  in multi-media  social  activities  and  multi-modal  cultural  systems  has  become  a  new topic in contemporary research.
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1.2 Purpose of the Research
First, this study attempts to find out the current situation of junior two students’ reading  anxiety,  and  investigate  whether  intensive  multimodal  reading  teaching  is helpful  in  dealing  with  students’  reading  anxiety.  If  intensive  multimodal  reading teaching  can  alleviate  students’  reading  anxiety, the  author  will  further  explore  the types of reading anxiety that can be reduced by this teaching mode. 
Second,  the  purpose  of  this  study  is  to  awaken  junior-high-school  English teachers’ awareness of the importance of multimodal reading teaching, especially that of  the  teachers  in  rural  areas.  In  this  process,  it  provides  theoretical  guidance  for English teachers to effectively integrate teaching resources, and explores the methods of effective English reading teaching in junior high school in minority rural areas. 
So far, the study of foreign language learning anxiety and multimodal teaching respectively  has  made  great  achievements.  There  are  also  many  strategies  to  solve foreign language reading anxiety. However, there is little attention to alleviate reading anxiety  through  multimodal  reading  teaching.  Reading  is  an  important  way  for students  to  obtain  information,  and  reading  anxiety  is  one  of  the  important factors affecting reading effect. Applying intensive multimodal reading teaching to junior two students  not  only  provides  a  reference  for  English  teachers  to  alleviate  students’ reading  anxiety,  but  also  offers  a  domestic  case  in  the  following  two  areas: multimodal English reading teaching and reading anxiety.  
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Chapter Two Literature Review

2.1 Theoretical Framework
2.1.1 Multimodal Discourse Analysis (MDA) 
“Multimodal  discourse  refers  to  the  use  of  hearing,  vision,  touch  and  other feelings,  through  language,  image,  sound,  action  and  other  means  and  symbolic resources  in  communication”  (Zhang,  2009).  Multimodal  discourse  was  not  taken seriously until the study of modern linguistics emerged. Then scholars began to study it  as  an  auxiliary  expression  system  of  language,  but  not  as  a  mode  of  meaning expression.  In  recent  years,  with  the  emergence  of  multimodal  discourse,  as  an independent frontier academic field, its importance has been widely recognized. 
Multimodal  discourse  analysis  theory  is  mainly  based  on  Halliday’ system-functional  linguistics.  Most  of  the  meaning  of  discourse  is  reflected  by non-verbal  factors  in  communication,  such  as  accompanying  language  features (loudness, tone, intonation, sound speed, etc.), physical features (gestures, body, facial expressions, movements, etc.), and non-physical  features (PPT equipment, network, etc.). In this case, communication is no longer carried out with one sense, but with two or more senses at the same time. For example, PPT teaching is carried out with vision  and  hearing  at  the  same  time.  The  discourse  produced  in  this  form  of communication  is  multimodal  discourse.  In  a  word,  multimodal  discourse  is  a phenomenon that uses senses (hearing, vision, touch, etc.), language, image, sound, action and other means and symbolic resources to communicate.
Since  the  American  linguist  Harris  put  forward  the  research  direction  of discourse analysis in the early 1950s, it has attracted the attention of scholars all over the world. One of the earliest researchers in multimodal discourse analysis was the R. Barthes. He, in his paper Rhetoric of the Images, discussed the interaction between image and language in the meaning of expression. However, it was not until the 1990s that  multimodal  discourse  analysis  really  developed.  The  study  of  multimodal discourse  from  the  perspective  of  systemic  functional  linguistics  was  initiated  by Kress and Leeuven (2001).  
Figure 1 Krashen’s Hypothesis of Affective Filter
Figure 1 Krashen’s Hypothesis of Affective Filter
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2.2 Foreign Language Reading Anxiety
The  development  of  humanism  and  Krashen’s  second  language  acquisition theory is accompanied with the growing attention to the impact of affective factors on students’ second language learning input. With the deepening of the study of second language acquisition from the perspective of cognition, people are increasingly aware of the importance of affective factors in second language acquisition. Therefore, the influence  of  emotion  on  language  learning  cannot  be  ignored.  Anxiety,  as  a  major affective  factor  is  worth  studying (Arnold,  2005).  The  anxiety  of  foreign  language classroom  is  different  from  that  of  other  subjects.  Foreign  language  classes  are especially prone to anxiety and are prevalent in foreign language classes.
2.2.1 Definitions of Related Terms
Anxiety
Many foreign researchers have given us different definitions of anxiety. Horwit (1986) claimed that “anxiety is a subjective feeling of tension, botheration. Chinese scholars also given us the definition”. Zhang (1994) defined anxiety as an uneasiness of the mood because of the individual cannot achieve a certain purpose. Wang and Wan (2001) hold the same view, that is, anxiety is an emotional state of fear, because individuals  are  unable  to  achieve  their  goals  or  overcome  the  threat  of  obstacles, which  frustrates  their  self-esteem  and  self-confidence,  or  increases  their  sense  of failure and guilt. 
Foreign Language Anxiety
As  the  main  affective  factor  (Arnold,  2005)  in  language  learning,  foreign researches  on  foreign  language  anxiety  have  made  many  achievements.  Since  the 1980s,  the  study  of  language  learning  anxiety  has  made  a  great  breakthrough. The concept  of  foreign  language  anxiety  was  first  put  forward  by  Horwitz  (1986).  He explained  that  “foreign  language  anxiety  is  a  unique  and  complex  synthesis  of self-awareness,  beliefs,  emotions,  and  behaviors  associated  with  language  learning process in the classroom”. And then he divided second language classroom anxiety into test anxiety, communication apprehension and fear of negative evaluation. Test anxiety  is  defined  as  the  tendency  to  look  at  insufficient  results  in  the  process  of investigation  with  fear  (Sarason,  1978).  Communication  apprehension  refers  to anxiety characterized by fear or worry when communicating with others, which is a shy reaction (Horwitz, et al., 1986). Negative evaluation anxiety is an anxiety caused by learners’ fear of receiving negative evaluation. A few years later, MacIntyre and Gardner (1991) enriched Horwitz’s opinion. They pointed out that anxiety is one of the  most  important  factors  affecting  individual  differences  in  foreign  language learning.  They  divided  foreign  language  learning  anxiety  into  input  anxiety, processing anxiety and output anxiety from the stage of foreign language anxiety. The input  stage  refers  to  the  initial  experience  of  the  learner  at  a  specific  time  with  a specific stimulus, and the input is related to the initial representation of the memory entry. The processing stage involves the cognitive operation of the subject such as the organization, storage and assimilation of the material. The output involves the output of previously learned materials.  
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Chapter Three Methodology ........................................ 33
3.1 Research Questions .................................................. 33
3.2 Research Participants ............................................ 33
3.3 Research Instruments ................................... 36
Chapter Four Research Results and Discussion .............................. 60
4.1 The Current Situation of English Reading Anxiety in Junior Two Students ..................... 60
4.1.1 Descriptive Statistical Analysis of Reading Anxiety in Junior Two Students ........ 60
4.1.2 Analysis on Gender Differences of English Reading Anxiety .................................. 62
Chapter Five Conclusion ..................................... 70
5.1 Main findings ......................................... 70
5.2 Pedagogical Implication of This Research ............................................... 71
5.3 Limitation and Recommendation for Future Study ..................................... 7

Chapter Four Research Results and Discussion

4.1 The Current Situation of English Reading Anxiety in Junior Two Students
4.1.1 Descriptive Statistical Analysis of Reading Anxiety in Junior Two Students
Table 13 Descriptive Statistics on the Five Factors of Reading Anxiety
Table 13 Descriptive Statistics on the Five Factors of Reading Anxiety 
The Table 13 shows the overall English reading anxiety scores of 238 students and reading anxiety scores of each factor. The foreign language reading anxiety scale used  in  this  thesis  consists  of  26  items,  each  item  has  a  score  ranging  from  l  to  5 points, the mid-value of the score of reading anxiety is 2.5. Thus, if the mean value is more than 2.5, it means that the students’ English reading anxiety is at a high level. If the mean value is less than 2.5, it means that the students’ English reading anxiety is at  a low level. In Table13, we can easily find the mean value of the total score of reading anxiety is 3.12 with a standard deviation of 0.52, which is higher than 2.5. It indicates that junior two students in  A Middle School  are suffering  from  an above average level of English reading anxiety.  
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Chapter Five Conclusion

5.1 Main findings
First, students in junior two are suffering from an above average level of English reading anxiety. The five factors of English reading anxiety rank from high to low is: “affective factor”, “text understanding”, “cultural background”, “learning method and habit”, and “teaching mode”. It illustrates that student are most likely to vulnerable to the  anxiety  caused  by  “affective  factor”  in  the  process  of  reading,  and  then  to  be affected by “text understanding”. Next, students be affected by the anxiety caused by “cultural background” and “learning method and habit”, which are relatively less than the  first  two  kind  of  anxieties  (“affective  factor”,  “text  understanding”).  Reading anxiety caused by “teaching mode” is relatively small. 
Second, there is significant difference in reading anxiety between boys and girls among  junior  two  students.  Boys  are  more  likely  than  girls  to  experience  reading anxiety. From the five factors influencing reading anxiety, significant differences are found between boys and girls in terms of “text understanding”, “learning method and habit” and “teaching  mode”. However, there is no significant  difference in the two factors “affective factor” and “cultural background” between boys and girls.
Third, through intensive multimodal reading teaching, the reading anxiety level of the experimental class students decrease, and the number of students with reading anxiety also reduce significantly. What we need to be noticed is that students’ reading anxiety on the four factors (“text understanding”, “cultural  background”, “affective factor” and “teaching mode”) are significantly reduced (p=0.000<0.05), but there is no significant difference in the factor of “learning method and habit” (p=0.258>0.05). While the level of reading anxiety and the number of students with reading anxiety in the control class is unchanged. In short, intensive multimodal reading teaching mode can  relieve  students’  reading  anxiety.  Specifically,  intensive  multimodal  reading teaching  mode  can  alleviate  the  reading  anxiety  caused  by  “text  understanding”, “cultural background “, “affective factor” and “teaching mode”. However, there is no significant effect on reading anxiety caused by “learning method and habit”.
reference(omitted)

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