基于语料库的初中英语教师网络优质教育课堂中的追问话语研究

来源: www.sblunwen.com 发布时间:2020-07-24 论文字数:52144字
论文编号: sb2020072108241832272 论文语言:English 论文类型:硕士毕业论文
本文是一篇教育论文,本研究采用定量分析与定性分析相结合的方法,对16名初中英语教师的课堂跟踪提问进行统计分析。其中,数据来源于国家教育资源平台《易时易友》,课堂教师教学视频
本文是一篇教育论文,本研究采用定量分析与定性分析相结合的方法,对16名初中英语教师的课堂跟踪提问进行统计分析。其中,数据来源于国家教育资源平台《易时易友》,课堂教师教学视频全部选自2016-2018年的高质量部级课程,具有一定的代表性。另外,在数据采集过程中,着重从两个方面进行了研究。第一个是针对中国东部沿海和内陆地区,第二个是针对七年级和九年级的初中生。因此,在数据分析过程中,主要比较了不同地区、不同年级学生的课堂随堂提问差异。关于课堂跟踪提问的研究有很多种。在这里,我们将重点放在后续提问的形式和场合上。后续问题的分类基于布鲁姆的认知目标分类法。在布鲁姆的理论指导下,将问题分为六类两个层次,并借助独立样本测验进行地区和年级的比较分析。因此,本部分首先总结了本研究的主要结论,然后根据数据分析的结果提出了一些教学启示。最后,在这一部分的最后,指出了研究过程中存在的不足,并对未来的研究进行了展望。

Chapter One Introduction

1.1 Research Background
Teacher talk refers to the language used by teachers to organize contents andengage in classroom teaching situations. It is a tool for teachers to implement teachingplans and the language spoken by teachers in EFL class is an important source oflanguage input for students (Nunan 1991). In other words, teachers' discourse isconsidered to play a prominent role in English classroom. It is not only the mainmedium for teachers to teach in class, but also an important source of comprehensiblelanguage input for students in the context of foreign language learning in China.Therefore, the quality of teachers' discourse is directly related to the classroomteaching effect and the cultivation of students' language ability to some extent.Scholars at home and abroad have conducted a large number of analysis andresearches on teachers' discourse, mainly focusing on the amount of teacher discourse,discourse types, vocabulary selection, question types and strategies, feedback anderror correction, interactive adjustment and code conversion, etc.
Among them, teacher questioning, as an indispensable part of teachers'classroom discourse, has always been the core of domestic and foreign scholars'empirical researches. Teacher questioning provides an opportunity for teachers andstudents to engage in conversational interaction, which is conducive to the dynamicgeneration of English classes, activating classroom learning atmosphere, andproviding adequate comprehensible language input for students. Early studies mainlyfocused on the types and strategies of teachers' questioning in class, the waiting time after questions and the classroom functions reflected by questions. Furthermore, manyresearchers realized that the value of EFL classroom teaching is mainly reflected inthe degree of genuine communication. Therefore, the questions raised by teachers inclass are mainly referential questions, which will fulfill the real communicativeinteraction. As regards referential questions, they need teachers to make every effortdo the deeply processing (Thornbury 1996:282), while display questions will beanswered easily by learners in the process of teaching (Hargreaves, D.H 1984: 46-51).Then with the center of researches on teachers' questioning strategies, manyresearchers have found out that teachers' discourse can be trained to a higher level,like asking more appropriate questions. 
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1.2 Research Purpose
Teacher talk, compared with other general discourses used by people, is thevariety of language used by teachers in classroom situation. Although there is no lackof academic articles and researches on teacher talk in domestic and foreign studies, itis worth noticing that teacher talk, especially teachers' classroom follow-upquestioning, still deserves to be studied for academic purpose. Teachers' follow-upquestioning is an indispensable part in the process of teachers' questioning. Therefore,this paper analyzes English teaching videos on the national public platform ofeducational resources “YI SHI YI YOU”. The reason for choosing this platform is thatit is an excellent online courses teaching platform for primary and secondary school students certified by the Ministry of Education. On this basis, the classes selected inthis study are all the 2016-2018 years' provincial “Quality Classes”, which areawarded by the provincial education committees annually. Therefore, these qualityclasses are taken as the research objects, making the study truly exemplary.Meanwhile, through analyzing different teachers' teaching videos in differentprovinces on this platform, this research tries to help people have a preliminaryunderstanding of follow-up questioning by English teachers in junior middle schools.To be specific, based on the data collected from quality classes in these four provinces,we may find some differences between coastal area and inland area of Eastern Chinaand some common problems existed in these areas, so as to put forward some feasiblesuggestions for teachers' classroom discourse.
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Chapter Two Literature Review

2.1 Teacher Talk
First of all, discourse is a medium used by human beings to achieve interpersonalcommunication. Discourse originates from interpersonal interaction and it is theproduct of human social communication. Discourse depends on social context, and indifferent social environments, it has different features and forms. For example,discourse produced in class is called classroom discourse. Classroom discoursemainly refers to the discourse produced in classroom teaching situation.
Due to the particularity of classroom teaching situation, classroom discourse isdifferent from other social languages. Classroom discourse mainly includes teachertalk and learners' language(Chaudron 1988). The research on the analysis of teachertalk in classroom is called classroom teacher talk research, which mainly focuses onthe types, quantity, function and characteristics of teachers' discourse. As researcherspay more attention to teachers' discourse in class, people gradually find out theparticularity of English teachers' discourse. Considering China's social environment,English as a language subject, which is different from other language subjects ingeneral. English is a foreign language for Chinese people to learn. Therefore, Englishin class is not only the medium for teachers to organize classes and impart knowledge,but also the goal for learners to learn. Due to this kind of characteristic, classroom discourse of English teachers in Chinese context is different from the other subjects.Therefore, classroom discourse analysis of English teachers should be based on theirown theories, such as second language acquisition theory and pragmatic principles.The analysis of teacher talk in classroom is only a part of classroom discourseanalysis. The discourse generated in class includes not only teacher talk but alsolearners' language, among which teacher talk is also divided into mother tongue andEnglish. This paper mainly studies the use of English in teacher talk. The relationshipbetween classroom discourse of English teachers and other discourse is shown infigure 2.1 below:
Figure 2.1 Hierarchical structure of discourse(Cheng Xiaotang 2009)
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2.2 Follow-up Questioning
This overview of follow-up questioning considers what we can learn aboutclassroom teachers' follow-up questioning by looking at previously relevantresearches about it. So this part begins with an overview of various definitions aboutfollow-up questioning in different subjects. The discussion then turns to a moredetailed information by presenting relevant studies such as: principles, strategies andforms of classroom follow-up questioning. More importantly, what we need to knowis that the specific boundary of characteristics of classroom follow-up questioning in English classes.
2.2.1 Various Definitions of Follow-up Questioning
Follow-up questioning is a dynamic classroom questioning activity which is animportant embodiment of classroom interaction between teachers and students.Follow-up questioning is also a kind of exploratory activity, which is a way forteachers to help students understand the teaching content and promote thedevelopment of thinking through a series of interlocking and progressive questions. Atpresent, the definition of follow-up questioning in the literature mainly focuses onthree aspects. The first is to explore the relationship between the initial questioningand the follow-up questioning; the second is to focus on the content of the follow-upquestioning. The third is the object that focuses on in the process of follow-upquestioning, like individual students or the whole class.
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Chapter Three Research Methodology.................................... 31
3.1 Research Questions..........................................31
3.2 Research Design.................................32
Chapter Four Results and Analysis.......................40
4.1 Overall Distribution of Follow-up Questioning in Middle School English Classes..........40
4.1.1 Differences across Learners' Grades.............................45
4.1.2 Differences across Provincial Areas..................... 51
Chapter Five Conclusion................................... 72
5.1 Major Findings.........................................72
5.2 Implications..................................74

Chapter Four Results and Analysis

4.1 Overall Distribution of Follow-up Questioning in Middle SchoolEnglish Classes
In this study, transcription analysis was conducted on the teaching videos of 16junior middle school English teachers collected, and the data were sorted out to reachthe conclusion shown in table 4.1. Among them, in order to protect the privacy of theresearch objects, each teacher is marked with a code to facilitate the subsequentresearch. Table 4.1 mainly describes the overall situation of the classroom follow-upquestioning of junior middle school English teachers, showing the times of initialquestioning and follow-up questioning, and the frequency of follow-up questioning.Therefore, this paper mainly starts from the whole, first grasping the whole situationof classroom follow-up questioning, and then carrying out detailed analysis on thespecific details.
Table 4.1 The overall distribution of teachers' questioning and follow-upquestioning
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Chapter Five Conclusion

5.1 Major Findings
First of all, this study made a systematic statistics on the overall situation of thefollow-up questioning in junior middle school English classes, and the conclusions areas follows: Junior middle school English teachers ask more questions but fewerfollow-up questions in class. For instance, the total number of classroom questioningraised by 16 teachers is 856, with an average of about 54 classroom questioning perclass. However, the total number of follow-up questioning in class is only 257, and the average number of follow-up questioning by teachers in each class is about 13.
Secondly, in the comparison of follow-up questioning in grade 7 and grade 9,this research has found that from the primary cognitive level of follow-up questioning,there are many similarities between grade 7 and grade 9, including the frequency offorms of follow-up questioning all followed by the rule like, comprehensiblequestions > knowledgeable questions > application questions. For example, the 8English teachers in grade 7 asked follow-up questions for a total of 89 times, amongwhich the frequency of comprehensible questions was the highest (25.9%), followedby knowledgeable questions (21.3%), and the frequency of application questions wasthe least (15.7%). However, for grade 9, the total number of classroom follow-upquestioning by 8 teachers was 169, among which comprehensible questions accountedfor 39.6%, ranking the first, followed by knowledgeable questions (8.9%), and theleast frequent was application questions (1.2%). But for advanced level of cognition,almost each form of advanced cognitive follow-up questioning in grade 9 is twicethan that of grade 7. For example, the analytical questions are 57 in grade 9, while theseventh grade is 21, the synthesis question is 11 and 4, and the evaluative question is17 and 7.
reference(omitted)

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