中国小学教师的性别结构与收入——30年演变的探讨

论文价格:300元/篇 论文用途:硕士毕业论文 Master Thesis 编辑:vicky 点击次数:
论文字数:62536 论文编号:sb2021120618554440484 日期:2021-12-13 来源:硕博论文网
本文是一篇教育论文,在分析开始时,我通过实际平均年收入和相对平均年收入观察了劳动力市场在总体水平上的重要收入趋势。小学教师的实际和相对平均年收入增长率因地区而异。

Chapter One INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study
1.1.1 The shortage of men in the sector
One  of  the  main  concerns  of  teacher  policy  is  that  there  are  long-term  trends  of  fewer males in the composition of the teaching workforce (OECD, 2005). An international concern with the shortage of men in the teaching workforce has been paid great attention in numerous countries such as Germany, Finland, Australia, United Kingdom, and South Africa (Basten, 1997; Bhana & Moosa, 2016; De Salis et al., 2019; Farquhar, 1998; Johnson 2008; Lahelma, 2000; McGrath & Van Bergen, 2017; McGrath & Sinclair, 2013; Mills et al., 2004; Mistry & Sood,  2015;  Riddell  &  Tett,  2010;  Skelton,  2009,  2012;  Sumsion,  2005).  In  particular,  the paucity of men in preschool and primary school teaching is certainly not a new phenomenon and  has  been  a  serious  problem  despite  a  century  or  more  of  various  educational  reforms. According to Rolfe (2006), men are a small minority of teachers in the early years’ education sector  and  the  scarcity  of  men  can  be  seen  as  an  issue  for  government  plans  for  workforce expansion to meet parental employment and child education objectives, as an issue for equal opportunities  and  diversity  of  gender,  and  as  an  issue  for  the  teaching  quality  for  children. Also,  it  was  stated  that  there  was  a  critical  lack  of  male  teachers  moving  into  primary education  and  this  ongoing  paucity  was  rarely  ever  viewed  as  problematic  (Davis  &  Hay, 2018). 
The  OECD  data  reported  in  Table  1-1  shows  the  proportions  of  male  primary  school teachers,  changes  in  those  proportions,  and  the  corresponding  rankings  from  thirty-two countries  between  2010  and  2017.  As  can  be  seen  in  Table  1-1,  the  proportion  of  male teachers  increased  in  nine  countries  (28.13%)  and  decreased  in  twenty-three  countries (71.88%) for seven years. In 2017, the highest percentage was recorded in India at 48.79%, while  the  lowest  percentage  in  Hungary  at  only  3.46%.  And  twelve  countries  exceeded  the international mean, 18.34%, and the remaining twenty countries had percentages below that value in 2017. Since the proportions of male primary school teachers decreased by more than 70% of countries, the international mean also fell from 19.10% in 2010 to 18.34% in 2017. Table  1-1  also  indicated  that  during  seven  years  Turkey,  where  the  decrement  was  9.09%, suffered the largest decline, and Slovenia where the increment was 9.50% grew to the highest.
教育论文怎么写
教育论文怎么写
.................................

1.2 Problem Statement
As  can  be  seen  in  Table  1-1,  China  had  the  percentage  of  male  teachers  in  the  primary teaching workforce as 42.25% and ranked third out of thirty-two countries in 2010, while it was respectively recorded in the percentage of primary male teachers of this workforce and the corresponding ranking as 34.48% and fourth place in 2017. This implicates that China has still kept up a great male proportion in the primary teaching workforce and has been in the leading  position  throughout  the  world.  However,  in  terms  of  the  declining  percentage  in China  over  seven  years,  that  value  was  8.07%  and  China  took  the  thirty-first  place  among thirty-two countries (see Table 1-1). From this fact it can be easily known that China has also led the world in the decrement of the male proportion of the primary teaching workforce. And it  is  clear  that  if  this  continues  in  the  future,  most  of  the  primary  male  teachers  will  have disappeared by 2047. 
The  fact  that  the  number  of  men  in  the  primary  teaching  profession  was  a  minority  in China  has  aroused  many  researcher’s  concerns.  According  to  the  Educational  Statistics Yearbook of China 2017, Table 1-2 shows the percentages of males, females, and the male to female ratio in the primary teaching workforce of China by type in 2017. Compared with the male-female  ratio  in  the  population  of  China,  104.92%  in  2017,  the  ratios  are  very  low,  as shown in Table 1-2. 
Many research works have been done on fewer male participation in the early education of China,  where  the  male-female  ratio  has  been  very  low,  concerned  with  the  perceptions  to male teachers’ role in educating young children, the gender effect on the employment of men, the  motivations  and  experiences  of  male  teachers  in  kindergartens,  etc  (Chen,  2015;  Dai, 2020;  Gai,  2011;  Ho  &  Lam,  2014;  Huang  &  Ding  2017;  Jing,  2016;  Liu,  2006;  Xu  & Waniganayake,  2018;  Yang  &  McNair,  2019;  Yin  &  Qiu,  2013;  Zhang,  2012;  Zhang  & Wang, 2018). Analyzing the effects of male preschool teachers during children’s growth, Gai (2011)  indicated  that  they  had  a  natural  physical  quality,  an  open  and  active  thinking,  a creative  character,  special  gender  roles  and  awareness  to  have  a  positive  and  irreplaceable influence  on  the  development  of  children. 
...............................

Chapter Two LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Definition of Key Terms
2.1.1 Teacher labor market
A labor market is a market where people provide their employers with skills in exchange for wages, salaries, and other forms of remuneration. In other words, the labor market refers to the supply-demand relationship of labor, in which the supply is offered by employees and the  demand  is  provided  by  employers  (Kenton,  2020).  Participants  in  the  labor  market include any person who is seeking to work for compensation and any person or organization that is looking for people to perform labor. The labor market is generally viewed at both the macroeconomic and microeconomic levels and there is a different market for every different type of labor (OpenStax, 2018).
The  teacher  labor  market  is  also  a  kind  of  labor  market  dealing  with  the  supply  of  and demand  for  teachers,  and  its  concept  is  used  by  educational  economists  to  describe  and explain the processes which match individuals to teacher jobs in society (Santiago, 2004). Ву the anаlуѕis of the tеасher lаbor mаrkеt, the dеtеrminantѕ of the number of tеасherѕ rеquirеd, as wеll as the fасtorѕ that influеnсе the individuаl’ѕ willingnеѕѕ to рrерare for, еntеr, and ѕtау in or rеturn to teaching thrоughоut their working livеѕ, are ѕtudiеd (Vеgas, 2007).
While the teacher labor market is distinct from other labor markets in several aspects, the most important distinction is that the teacher labor market is not perfectly competitive. This can be mainly explained by the dominant position of the government in the education sector as a provider and regulator (Santiago, 2004). 
As  the  government  is  an  almost  exclusive  provider  of  education  and  buyer  of  teacher services,  the  supply  and  demand  for  teachers  in  most  countries  are  controlled  by  public sectors.  Moreover,  the  government  establishes  bargaining  laws,  compensation  mechanisms, recruitment  and  selection  processes  to  regulate  the  functioning  of  the  teacher  labor  market and  runs  the  public  education  system.  These  roles  of  the  government  make  a  considerable contribution to reducing market competition in the teacher labor market. 
.................................

2.2 Studies Related to the Decline of Male Primary school teachers
2.2.1 Several perceptions on men’s fewer participation in primary schools
The  MFPTR  in  the  education  system  depends  on  how  many  men  are  in  the  primary teaching  profession.  And  obviously,  when  there  are  more  male  teachers,  this  ratio  will  be larger, while fewer male teachers provide a smaller ratio. Concerned with this matter, many research  works  have  studied  the  international decline  of  the  male  proportion  in  the  primary teaching workforce from different perspectives. 
To  investigate  how  to  include  more  males  into  the  teacher  job,  Stroud  et  al.  (2000) identified  the  factors  affecting  the  men’s  choice  to  choose  a  career  of  teaching  and  the attitudes  and  expectations  of  male  students  majoring  in  education  toward  their  faced  job. According to their findings, the most important factor for pre-service education majors is the impact  of  professional  educators  such  as  counselors,  principals,  teachers,  etc.  Exploring  the perceptions  and  thoughts  of  male  students,  Anliak  &  Beyazkurk  (2008)  identified  the negative  responses  of  five  main  categories:  attitudes  towards  male  teacher  identity;  the advantages and disadvantages of being a male teacher; the future positions of male teachers and their future plans related to their job. To analyze the paucity of male inclusion in teaching, Ponte  (2012)  discussed  the  factors  that  can  affect  men  to  choose  teaching  as  a  job  and proposed  the  possibility  of  regarding  the  males’  participation  in  teaching.  His  interview analysis  for  male  teachers  and  teacher  candidates  found  that  the  most  prominent  aspect  to drive  the  males  into  teaching  was  their  desire  to  give  promotion  to  social  justice  and  to contribute to their community. 
................................

Chapter Three DATA AND METHOD......................................38
3.1 Data .................................39
3.1.1 China Labor Statistical Yearbooks .......................................40
3.1.2 Chinese General Social Survey ......................................41
Chapter Four RESULTS ...........................................5
4.1 Results for Part 1: The MFPTR Changes over the Past Three Decades.............58
4.2 Results for Part 2: The Primary Teaching Earning Penalty ................................61
4.3 Results for Part 3: The Primary School Teacher Occupational Choice and Opportunity Earnings .........................73
Chapter Five DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION..............................85
5.1 Discussion .................................85
5.1.1 Main findings and discussion for Part 1 ..............................86
5.1.2 Main findings and discussion for Part 2 ......................................87

Chapter Four RESULTS

4.1 Results for Part 1:The MFPTR Changes over the Past Three Decades
The main objective of this section is to determine whether the MFPTR in different regions and  nationwide  in  China  has  changed  over  the  past  three  decades.  No  existing  research  has discussed this topic. Therefore, to rigorously answer this research question, I employ a linear regression model about how the MFPTR has changed across years in three economic regions and  nationwide  in  China.  Effectively,  this  analysis  helps  know  whether  the  MFPTR  has linearly  increased  or  decreased  and  to  what  extent  the  MFPTR  has  been  changed  over  the years. 
According  to  Section  3.2,  the  MFPTRs  are  calculated  in  three  economic  regions  and nationwide of China from 1988 to 2018 excluding 1991 by using the total number of primary school  teachers  with  the  number  of  females  in  that  group  collected  from  China  Labor Statistical Yearbooks. 
In  Table  4-5,  detailed  information  on  descriptive  statistics  is  introduced,  for  three economic regions and nationwide. Thirty years of the MFPTR data are used in all the cases. The MFPTRs have the mean ratio 1.03 (SD = 0.26) with a range (0.58 - 1.52) in nationwide, the  mean  ratio  0.85  (SD  =  0.23)  with  a  range  (0.47  -  1.31)  in  the  eastern  region,  the  mean ratio  1.07  (SD  =  0.24)  with  a  range  (0.62  -  1.50)  in  the  intermediate  region,  and  the  mean ratio 1.25 (SD = 0.33) with a range (0.68 - 1.82) in the western region. 
教育论文参考
教育论文参考
...............................

Chapter Five DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

5.1 Discussion
The  fast  development  of  the  Chinese  economy  over  the  last  decades  has  produced tremendous job opportunities and has greatly enhanced the overall well-being of the people. But, taking these rapid changes in the job market into consideration, the present study raises some issues that withholding teachers’ salaries at a wider market level could potentially have a  major  negative  impact;  the  quality  of  the  education  system  comes  from  the  quality  of teachers.
In  particular,  . Concerned  with  this  matter,  teacher  occupational  choice  theory  helps  to  understand  what factors  influence  the  individuals’  career  decision  to  be  engaged  in  primary  schools.  In  this study, using a four-part analytic approach, I confirm empirical observations on the decline in male’s  participation  in  the  primary  teaching  workforce  over  the  past  three  decades, contextualize  theoretical  stipulations  of  the  broader  occupational  choice  framework  at  the micro-level using the case of primary school teachers, and explain the changes in the male to female teacher ratio in primary schools in China by employing macro-level data.
At the outset of the analysis, I observe important income trends in the labor market at the aggregate  level  via  actual  average  annual  income  and  relative  average  annual  income.  The rate  of  primary  school  teachers’  actual  and  relative  average  annual  earnings  growth  varies substantially across regions. However, investigating a common trend of them, in nationwide and  all  three  economic  regions,  actual  average  annual  incomes  of  workers  in  primary education  have  increased  at  a  lower  rate  of  growth  compared  to  those  in  other  education sectors, but have shown a higher growth rate than those in the overall sector. Considering this through  relative  income,  in  nationwide  and  all  three  economic  regions,  relative  average annual  incomes  of  workers  in  primary  education  compared  to  secondary  education  and tertiary education have decreased, while average annual incomes of primary school teachers relative to workers in the overall sector have increased. The exception to this is that only in the  western  region,  average  incomes  of  primary  school  teachers  have  grown  more  rapidly than secondary school teachers during the same period. 
reference(omitted)

上一篇:家庭成长教育促进乡村教育扶贫的个案思考——以云霄县“守望学堂”办学实践为例
下一篇:没有了