科学实验室及实践考试表现:以南苏丹朱巴中学生为个案

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论文字数:42555 论文编号:sb2022010512195142307 日期:2022-01-07 来源:硕博论文网
本文是一篇教育论文,研究发现,在实验室使用频率不同的学生中,科学实践产出有很大差异。暴露于实验室条件较好的学生与暴露于实验室条件较差的学生的科学实践平均分存在显著性差异。因此,实验室水平对学生的实际表现起着重要的决定作用。学生使用实验室的程度(时间)与学生的实际表现之间存在显著性差异。有40%的教师毕业于南苏丹不同大学的教育学院。73%为男教师,27%为女教师。所有这些中学的教师都有一至五年的工作经验。

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study
The  school's  scientific  laboratory  offers  a  variety  of  departments  (Biology, Chemistry,  and  Physics)  as  well  as  a  long  history  (from  18th  century  physics investigations  to  21st  century  biotechnology  procedures).  Scientific  activity  has changed through time in terms of its practical elements. New technology infrastructures have  been  incorporated,  interdisciplinary  research  has  become  more  common,  and scientific knowledge applications continue to expand and intersect with the workings of  society.  School  science  investigations  have  lagged  behind  in  general.  Attempts should be made to bring educational science up to date with current scientific practice (Bell, 2004b; Lemke, 1992). This includes demonstrating how empirical research fits into  the  larger  fabric  of  knowledge  work  associated  with  specific  disciplines—interacting with primary literature, communicating research through 28 presentations and  publications,  and  applying  laboratory-derived  knowledge  to  societal  issues  as needed—among other things. At the start of the twenty-first century, we are entering a new  era  of  scientific  education  reform  both  the  content  and  practice  of  scientific learning and instruction are being studied, and new standards are being developed to define and rejuvenate science education (National Research Council, 2005; AAAS, 1990;  Millar  &  Osborne,  1998;  Bybee,  2000).  The  secondary  school  laboratory  is considered to be in good condition. Sturman et al. (2008) found that students in England are more likely to spend more time doing experimental learning in science laboratories, and science teachers are more likely to have a hands-on approach to teaching. Abimbola (2001)  one  of  the  great  concerns  in  the  laboratory  in  the  area  of  science  is  the availability  of  facilities  and  instructional  material.  Lujara  (2008)  reports  that  many schools depend on neighbor schools to conduct practical work for their students’ which is not enough for students to gain practical skills because of time factors. Laboratory has been discovered to be scientific workshops where practical activities are carried out to  develop  a  deeper  understanding  of  science  concepts  and  ideas  (Seweje,  2000). They've  also  been  discovered  to  be  a  main  vehicle  for  boosting  formal  reasoning abilities and student understanding, resulting in improved student learning outcomes. (Ogunleye2002).  Although  the  local  authorities  tried  rebuilding  laboratories  in secondary schools but still the number of graduates of science student decrease and the majority of the student having a poor performance in science practical. 
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1.2 Statement of the Problem
Both  stakeholders,  including  parents,  teachers,  educators,  science  education experts, the community, and the general public, are concerned about the success of the science students  Despite the efforts of science instructors, many students continue to do poorly in science. In South Sudan the performance of science students in practical science subjects (Biology, Chemistry and Physic) in National Examinations was very poor, the following data shown that in 2017 the science practical performance was 70% failed, 2018 was 68% failed and in 2019 was 72% failed (Ministry of Education annual report)  the question has been raised about levels of laboratories (Status of laboratory), the effective uses of laboratories, teachers technicians, especially with the continued decline in the performance of the science students in science practical. 
Many studies similar to science laboratories has been conducted in different countries for example in Nigeria Omiko (2015 in Pennsylvania State Hofstein (2004) but no literature found in South Sudan about the impact of uses of the laboratory on the students’  practical  performance,  other  study  they  focused  on  general  performance, hence  the  current  study  focused  on  the  practical  part,  because  the  practical  part  is directly linked to the exam. If the issues of practical performance are not treated the students’ will continue learning science practical poorly.
教育论文怎么写
教育论文怎么写
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CHAPTER TWO LITRATRUE REVIEW

2.1 The Concept of laboratory
Ottander and Grelsson (2006) the aim of the laboratory is to deliver students with conceptual and quantitative knowledge that will assist them in studying scientific ideas.  Laboratory  study  is  an  opportunity  for  students  to  observe  research  with substantive learning that will improve their logical thinking skills and promote their interest in and attitude toward science. The laboratory has been defined by (Omiko 2007) “A laboratory is a room, or building or a special period equipped and set apart for practical or experimental studies to take place” the use of laboratory and scientific equipment student can able to translate theoretical things into practical term thereby enhancing their understanding of the students’.
Yara (2010) investigate that, the use of laboratory and scientific equipment in teaching and learning science helps the students to understand more by doing than what they hear. Bybee (2000) emphasizes that the subject should use approach and practice to analyze phenomena in order to solve a specific problem, rather than practicing a specific process or methodology. Moreover, the traditional method is guilty of reducing the interest and retention of the science teacher which may lead to poor learning and performance. So, using laboratory helps to increase students’ performance and promote retention of psychomotor skill in science subject.
Bennett et al. (2003-2007) the implication of using laboratory and scientific equipment help the students on understanding science subject that led to the Good performance. the use of laboratory is important because the use of such approach in science teaching has been one of the more significant shifts in the science teaching over two last decades, particularly in eleven to eight mean, for example, science students need  practical  more  than  theories,  to  understand  the  topic  well  and  perform  better  (Lunetta  et  al.,  2007)  laboratory  and  scientific  equipment  is  the  primary  means  of science  instruction,  helps  the  student  to  enhance  problem-solving  confidence  and improve academic achievement.
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2.2The  Nature  of  Laboratory  &  Important  of  Practical  Work  on  Students Performance
According to Joshi (2008) laboratory method is important because it effective science teaching method and its result help the student to understand complex abstract and give the student opportunity in any science process which led to improving students’ performance as well. Onyesolu (2009) due to a lack of or inadequacy of laboratory equipment in classrooms, students are limited. From this perspective, contemporary, unconventional  laboratories  are  required  so  that  students  can  conduct  numerous experiments at any time and in safe settings. Besides, the use of laboratory and scientific equipment in science is an important component of the science learning process to acquire necessary skills and can help reinforce and deepen conceptual understanding of the content which may lead to an improvement in students’ performance. 
(Alebiosu, 2000; Onipede, 2003) they came to the conclusion that many schools lacked enough science instruments. (laboratory facilities) which makes the students fail to acquire science practical skills because their teacher was unable to conduct a practical experiment as they would like to this situation can make the student develop bad interest in practical works.
Hofstein and Lunetta (2004) stated that; the use of equipped laboratory and scientific equipment involves the students in observing or manipulating real objects and materials which develops students understanding of scientific concepts, and improves their competence and cognitive skills of the student. Aladejama and Aderbigbe (2007) the use of equipped laboratory and scientific equipment help the student to interact, illustrate materials given in theoretical class, and develop high interest for students.  
Hofstein  (2004)  reported  that  student  has  a  lot  of  benefit  from  the  use  of laboratory  and  scientific  equipment  which  increase  student  interest  and  ability  in science subject. According to Watson (2000), realistic work in secondary school is one of the most common ways to facilitate detailed observation and careful tracking, to make phenomena possible, to keep students interested, and to foster a rational and reasoning approach.
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CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ..................................... 25
3.1 Research Design .................................. 25
3.2 Population & Sampling ........................................... 26
3.3 Data Collection and Instrument ........................... 34
CHAPTER: FOUR FINDINGS...................34
4.1 The Mean Result for Mock Examination for Each School ................................ 34
4.2 Teacher Qualification ........................... 35 
CHAPTER: FIVE CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ............................. 53
5.1 Summary of the Findings .................... 53
5.2 Conclusions ...................................... 53

CHAPTER: FOUR FINDINGS

4.1 The Mean Result for Mock Examination for Each School
Table:  4.1  below  represent  the  mean  score  result  of  each  School,  and  the maximum and minimum mean result for science subject for each school, the result is only for senior four, this because senior four is the only class that have uniform mock exam  so  that  researcher  can  able  to  measure  their  practical  performance.  The performance of the students in 10 secondary schools is not very high only three schools had a highest performance of mean score, 19.12, 18.50, and 18.40, Yapa, Standard and Yei secondary school respectively.
教育论文参考
教育论文参考
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CHAPTER: FIVE CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Summary of the Findings
The  study  found  that there  is  a  substantial  difference  in  science  practical output among students who are exposed to varying frequency of laboratory use. There is  significance  different  between  students  mean  score  of  science  practical  of  the students’ exposed to well-equipped-laboratory and students’ who exposed to less-equipped. Therefore, the level of laboratory plays a significant role of determining students’ practical performance. There was significance different between the extent (time) in which the students used laboratory and students practical performance. The mean score result for 10 secondary schools is equal 16.53, the minimum result is equal 8.0 and the maximum result is equal 25.0 out of 30 total marks in science practicals. Four  schools  was  having  well-equipped-laboratory  and  sixth  schools  was  less-equipped laboratories. The total of 100 % represent the respondents from the Ten (10) secondary school says that they have access to science laboratories, the result also shows that the total of 100 % of the technician teachers they didn’t have any training in-service  from  Government  or  any  other  organizations  although  60  %  were  not graduated from the school of Education only 40 % were a graduate of schools of education from different universities in South Sudan. 73 % were Male teacher and 27 % were female teacher. In all these secondary schools teachers had experience between one and five years of experience. 
reference(omitted)

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