MSc,MPhil和PhD有什么区别?

来源: www.sblunwen.com 作者:LRZ520 发布时间:2019-11-14 论文字数:3759字
论文编号: sb2019111219274528537 论文语言:中文 论文类型:-
相信不少人都听说过MSc,MPhil和PhD,但是对于其中的概念意义,以及区别想必了解并不清楚。MSC全称是Master of Science,MPhil的全称是Master of Phisolophy,PhD的全称则是Doctor of Phisolophy。

  相信不少人都听说过MSc,MPhil和PhD,但是对于其中的概念意义,以及区别想必了解并不清楚。MSC全称是Master of Science,MPhil的全称是Master of Phisolophy,PhD的全称则是Doctor of Phisolophy。前两者指的是硕士学位,一个是理学硕士,另一个则是研究硕士。Mphil是从MSC到PhD这一过程中的过度部分,而PhD则是哲学博士学位的意思。对于三者的概念意义以及其中关联现在大家清楚了,那么三者之间的区别又有哪些呢。下文笔者将重点讲讲MSc,MPhil和PhD有什么区别,并分享相关内容要点。

  全称Master of Philosophy。一般,英国硕士学位分两种:授课型和研究型

  授课型一般学制为1年,如我们常见的Msc(理工科专业)、MA(艺术类)等学位。MPhil是研究型硕士学位中最常见的一种,是以完成一个项目/课题的专业研究为培养方式,通常所进行的是为期一年或两年的专业研究,一般很少上课和考试,除非是导师制定选修某些课程,毕业考核提交研究报告和论文即可。从某种角度,MPhil和PhD的课程结构基本上是一样的,差异在于从事研究的时间不同:前者是进行两年或一年的专业研究,后者是三年或四年。除此之外,两者对于研究课题的研究目的以及研究的深度有着很大的不同,MPhil相对于PhD要浅很多,导师的要求也会低很多。如果在MPhil阶段表现不错,会被导师直接推荐为攻读博士的哦!

  3.Ph.D=Doctor of Phisolophy,这里的philosophy在当今时代指的不是哲学。曾经PHD被一度认定为哲学博士,但因为哲学是一切科学之母,所以当今时代PHD泛指一切学术型博士。

  所谓哲学博士,是指拥有人对其知识范畴的理论、内容及发展等都具有相当的认识,能独立进行研究,并在该范畴内对学术界有所建树。因此,哲学博士基本上可以授予任何学科的博士毕业生。改革开放后,我国逐渐兴起的“专业学位”博士的称呼并没有照搬西方,一般不称作PhD,而是每个专业各有其简称。Ph.D是指学术研究型的博士。另外还有公共卫生学博士、组合密封以及Prüfung Hochschuldeutsch 大学德语考试等其它含义。

  申请海外PhD写作实例解析

  首段:

  Apart from the fancy energy self-sufficient world dipicted in science fictions, I hold the belief that building a novel energy-based society is achievable in the foreseeable future. In recent years, scientific breakthroughs have contributed to hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, solar powered mobile phones and direct thermal-to-electrical energy conversion systems, which were all beyond our imagination decades ago. Since fiction is metamorphosing into reality swiftly, with the hope that I could fully participate in this transformation, I initiated my journey into the exploration of energy materials at XX University. My long-term goal is to become an expert in energy field, especially energy harvesting, storage and conversion.

  评价:

  1.语言流畅,思路清晰,词汇适当,grammar error free

  2.用实例引出自己的motivation,是首段必备要素之一

  3.简洁但清晰陈述goal,是首段必备要素之二

  主体部分(第二段):

  My excellent performance in major courses won me the very first opportunity to be part of a province-level research project, which focused on A. Motivated by the possibilities of this undertaking, I fully immersed myself in. I spent literally the entire day conducting experiments via different testing apparatuses and running various preparation and characterization methods. The valuable research experience enlightened me that besides precision required in sample preparation and property characterization, the beauty of research lies in the mechanism revelation. I also had a first bite of novel energy storage field, especially A, which plays a critical role in the full implementation of B.

  评价:

  1.主体部分直接过渡到first academic experience,无trash内容

  2.用solid evidence支撑interest/research experience/internship,是文书必备要素之首

  3.用first academic experience中的inspiration作为motivation自然过渡到 next academic experience

  主体部分(第三段):

  Desired to level up my expertise in certain field, I pursued graduate studies in an advanced XX research lab at XX University. As a research assistant, I seized every opportunity to enhance my research capability. When the A apparatus was introduced into our lab, I volunteered to assemble and manage the equipment, which afforded me a clear view of its mechanisms. Therefore, when the group encountered issues related to the morphology of particles produced by the apparatus, I proposed to alter the reaction current and inner atmosphere, which significantly improved the sample quality. Meanwhile, during the A analysis of B, I observed a general left-shifting of peaks in the C, which was ignored in the weekly reports. Similar results after repeated experiments prompted me to rule out instrument errors as the cause. After a careful lattice constant calculation, I confirmed that this unnoticeable shifting was caused by the D. My critical thinking and rigorous attitude strengthened my competence, and I was given the go signal to start my independent research.

  评价:

  1.通过solid evidence证明abilities/skills,是文书必备要素之一

  2.通过solid evidence证明abilities/skills来solve specific problems,是文书必备要素之二

  3.通过solid evidence证明abilities/skills给自己/团队/课题组 bring concrete benefits,是文书必备要素之三

  4.abilities/skills中强调一下“overcome obstacles”这一块,是文书必备要素之四

  5.再次利用former experience中的accomplishment作为motivation自然过渡到 next academic experience

  主体部分(第四段):

  To convince my supervisor of the feasibility of choosing XX as my research topic, I spent two months preparing a comprehensive research proposal. After I commenced my experiments, everything went smoothly until an A emerged during the B and blocked the C. For two weeks, this puzzle lingered. I consulted with several professors and carefully studied their suggestions. As I had developed the habit of documenting my ideas immediately, I reviewed every note until I realized that the unknown D actually originated from E. The relationship was later proved through a simulation and presented in a published paper (I was first author). This discovery, which was the deciding factor in the quality of my independent research, has shown that persistence in thinking and refusal to surrender to challenges are the keys to success. Emboldened by my accomplishment, I continued my independent research on the E, a key point in its application. After successfully achieving F, as first author, I submitted another original paper.

  评价:

  1.同样,对于另外一段academic experience, 使用了solid evidenceabilities/skills如何solve specific problems, 且bring concrete benefits

  2.对于第三段acadmeic experience, 简单带过,作为supporting information

  3.paper/design/books等是作为achievement最直接的证明,但不需要列出具体信息(如paper名等)

  结尾段

  The Department of X at X has long been dedicated to developing innovative solutions to the world’s most pressing challenges in X fields. Your professors and students are committed to looking for possible sources of alternative energy while making current ones more sustainable, an endeavor that parallels my vision. There are over eight prominent professors who stay at the forefront of studying A, B and C. Working with them would equip me with both subject-specific knowledge and integrative understanding across a variety of energy issues. In addition, X’s research centers, especially the A, promote energy innovations by providing university-wide interdisciplinary research and national or international collaborations. Therefore, I will have more access to academic exchanges and cross-university facilities to maximize my success. I believe that with my previous excellent research background, which proved me a broadly educated and highly adaptable person, I am a promising candidate for your esteemed program.

  评价:

  1.program/department的goal如何与personal goal相match,是结尾段必备因素之一

  2.罗列并评价哪些prof/course/subjects让你刚兴趣,是结尾段必备因素之二

  3.罗列并评价其他让你动心的resources,是结尾段必备因素之三

  4.这些prof/course/subject/resources如何助力你的long and short term goals,是结尾段必备因素之四

  5.结尾一句话总结全文,表明申请意图,不卑不亢,完美收官。

  申请PhD写作套磁技巧

  第一、内容的入口点很多人都不知道怎么开这个口。其实开口很容易也不容易。容易的是,开口是从专业上开,不容易的是从专业上开怎么开。通常我建议学生从两个方面着手:

  -看教授的论文,然后写一个总结,把你自己的真实感想写出来,这是第一步。然后把你写完的东西给在你们学校内比较牛的老师看,让他提一些修改的意见,通过他的意见,再通过和你学校里老师的沟通,这样的话,进行修改你之前写的那个总结。把这个发给教授。但是要注意一点,邮件的题目不要说是来自于什么什么学生等等,要写上关于什么什么问题。

  -你现阶段的实验报告。我相信你在做你的实验过程当中每天都有不同的,在一段时间内把你的实验进展,以及遇到的困难,写在你的邮件里,或者跟他讨论,或者你告诉他你是怎么解决相关的问题的。以上两方面说起来虽然简单,但是做起来确实需要你的功底和能力了。

  第二、在表述一些点的时候,一定要注意一点,内容上虽然是在表现你的专业能力,但是有点一定要注意,就是通过对你专业能力的表述我们是要达到一个什么样的目的,我们要达到的是表现你在专业方面的兴趣,你真的喜欢做研究。很多时候我们仅仅是在那里说怎么表现我们对专业兴趣的时候,确实是很难,光靠嘴说,就是不停的在说我怎么怎么喜欢做研究这样是不够的,我相信就是你听到别人这样跟你说你也不会相信那个人。同样的道理,那些教授天天都不知道收多少封这样的邮件,早就练就了一副火眼金睛了。我希望你通过在说专业的时候表现出这样的对研究的兴趣,这样来说有事实为依托更为真实。并且建议你的套磁信以“xx问题”为题目,这样更能从专业的层面上吸引教授的目光。

  第三、在对于一些和你老师或者你熟悉的人有关系的人,如果他们有一些可能对你申请有帮助的人的话,我建议你最好可以让他们给你先发一封私人推荐信。让他们跟那边的老师说,我这边有个学生比较不错,想学你那个方面的东西,你看看他的情况,如果允许的话,可以让老师先把你的简历发给那边的老师。但是这样有一点,就是你老师愿意不愿意给你做推荐,因为他给你做推荐不仅仅是给你做了推荐,也是代表了他自己。如果你在那边表现得不好不是海要丢他的人吗。所以老师能不能给你做这点的话,还要看你自己,也不仅仅是和老师的关系。其实这样的做的结果对你最大的帮助就是说,可以和那边的教授建立起很有效的联系,不会说像现在的这种情况一样,发了10封美国PHD套磁信,可能只回了1封,这一封有没有都难说。这样的情况可以从一定程度上保证了回复率,同样也会从这些老师那边得到一些有用的信息,比如说这个学校哪个老师做你这个方面,要不要人,要多少人,什么要求,这样的话相对来说就比较明了。

  第四、发信的频率一定要注意,不要说2,3个月都不搭理人家了,突然发了一封信给他,这样的效果很不好。在频率上基本上最好保证1到2周联系一次。如果时间太密的话,没有什么东西可写的。如果时间跨度太大的话,很有可能人家都忘了你是谁了,这样每一次基本上都是新的,效果必然会大大折扣。所以要保持一个长久连续的联系。让教授看到你真的对他的研究感兴趣,这样才有可能打动他让他招收你并提供奖学金。

  第五、切记不要用任何的模板,模板这个东西,现在在网上已经很泛滥了。可以说你能找到的,其他人一样能找得到,你能发现的,其他人一样也能发现。而且你可以找一下模板看一下,大家写的东西都基本上一样,一上来都是那一套。可以说,我都看到恶心了,你想想那边的教授呢?要记住,套磁这个东西本身就是你自己推销你自己的过程,怎么能说每个人推销自己和其他人都一样呢?要知道每个人都有每个人不同的特点,我们在给自己做推销的时候当然要立足于我们自己了啊。如果每个人都一样,这种推销就失去意义了。记住一点,什么事情都是要立足于你自己,立足你本身,是你,而不是别人。所以不要用模板,但凡有能力就一定要自己写。

  第六、美国PHD套磁的时候一定要保持一个好的心态,因为现在的套磁情况就是这样,发100封信,回的可能只有10封,有可能这10封里有6封以上是废话,没有任何意义。所以一定要保持很好的心态,要有面对打击的能力。

  学生们要理清MSc,MPhil和PhD三者的区别所在,才能做好相应的文章写作。笔者上文从三者的概念,要点进行了分析,让大家有一个更全面的了解。除此之外,还着重讲解了PhD写作的技巧和相关事项,目的在于让大家更好的做好PhD写作,从而获得理想结果。


原文地址:http://www.sblunwen.com/lwxz/28537.html,如有转载请标明出处,谢谢。

您可能在寻找论文写作方面的范文,您可以移步到论文写作频道(http://www.sblunwen.com/lwxz/)查找


上一篇:党校科级干部结业论文3000字
下一篇:没有了
相关文章