如何做好一个Presentation?Presetation进阶教程图文版

来源: www.sblunwen.com 发布时间:2020-03-04 论文字数:0字
论文编号: sb2020030419325229755 论文语言:- 论文类型:心得体会
这篇文章的提供了很多实用性的技巧和例子,将帮助你从众多Presentation中脱颖而出,
小编今天为大家讲一下presentation的内容方面的注意。通常来说,在学习生涯,我们将长需要用presentation来展示我们的作业成果,研究报告有时也需要用presentation来更一步的帮助老师理解我们的想法。Presentation跟演讲的共同点在于都需要同学们有良好的语言能力和逻辑思维去表达沟通技巧。不同点在于,演讲总是附带一些情景渲染的效果,目的是为了激发听众的情感,而presentation则是简单明了,它更注重于对信息的一个精准性和简洁性,他的目的性比演讲更强烈,通常还会借用PPT作为传达信息的媒介。
一般来说,presentation这项任务的比重占最终成绩的20-45%,尤其是商科老师非常注重学生的presentation能力,这项分数可以直接对同学们的期末考试成绩有一定的影响。同学们如果想稳过并拿到一个不错的分数,就需要做好充足的准备。本文算是系列里的最良心的手把手教你如何在presentation中拿到高分,收到老师的青眯。

 1. 准备工作
  • 首先你要知道,你的观众需要了解到你在说什么,你想要表达什么观点。所以首先在确定你的主题(topic)之前,你应该确定你的听众是怎样的一群人(可能有一部分是非英语国家的人,这时就不应该用过于学术的词进行演讲),他们在这个问题(problem或者topic)里关心什么?
  • 然后我们就可以以此为出发点开始查询资料了~亲爱的们~灵活运用你们的度娘和Mr. Google(如果你的presentation不那么学术或者你只是想了解个大概状况的话)。但是,如果你是做学术性的presentation, 那么就需要去阅读非常非常非常多的报告了,这些报告通常是在database里面。
  • 把所有的思路全部列出来,能想多少想多少~(我一般都是在找了很多资料后才开始这一步,因为对于我来说,了解更多,脑洞越大。当然,你可以在把这部提前,每个人的思维方式不同嘛~),换句话说现在是头脑风暴的时间。
  • 准备工作也到此结束~~
 
2. 结构阶段
现在开始计划结构了。一般来说就是(比较公式化的)title-outline-introduction-body1-body2-.... -conclusion-Q&A。
一定要计划好哪个内容放在哪个版块里,这样准备演讲词的时候也有逻辑可循。其实我比较推荐在计划结构的时候就开始大致的做ppt了。ppt一定一定一定不要整段整段的文字!!这样会让你的听众无法集中到你的演讲中去,当然更重要的是你的老师100%不会给你高分~每页ppt最好只用一些关键词和不多于两张图片(你可以用这一些图片或词作为自己的提示)。
- Introduction 引入部分
This is the first impression that your audience have of you. You should concentrate on getting your introduction right.
一般引入部分有四个目的:
welcome your audience
欢迎观众
introduce your subject
介绍主题
outline the structure of your presentation
列出提纲
give instructions about questions
对提问环节进行事先解说(如什么时候可以提问)
以下是一些introduction部分的常用语
  • Welcoming your audience 欢迎您的观众
Good morning, ladies and gentlemen
Good morning, gentlemen
Good afternoon, ladies and gentlemen
Good afternoon, everybody
  • Introducing your subject 介绍您的主题
I am going to talk today about...
The purpose of my presentation is to introduce our new range of...
  • Outlining your structure 概述您的结构
To start with I'll describe the progress made this year. Then I'll mention some of the problems we've encountered and how we overcame them. After that I'll consider the possibilities for further growth next year. Finally, I'll summarize my presentation (before concluding with some recommendations).
  • Giving instructions about questions 提供有关问题的说明
Do feel free to interrupt me if you have any questions.
I'll try to answer all of your questions after the presentation.
I plan to keep some time for questions after the presentation.

- Body (主干部分)
The body should be well structured, divided up logically, with plenty of carefully spaced visuals.开始填充内容了。 内容(body)说实在的,我觉得就像写essay一样。要注意内容的逻辑性。把你想说的,想让你的听众理解的内容清楚的,有逻辑的排列出来,自然而然就可以有一个很好的body部分了。你可以根据自己的需要进行
  • 横向思维,纵向思维或者是思辨性的进行排序
  • 时间上,空间上的排序
  • 板块与板块的排序
  • 先因后果,先果后因的排序
以下是一些注意事项:
不要慌张,要热情饱满,给听众结合视觉辅助工具和眼神交流,调节声音,保持友好地态度友好,遵循提纲,借助提词,使用指示性语句(上一讲提过的哦),遇到刁钻问题保持礼貌

- Conclusion  总结部分
这一部分的作用是:总结概括,给出合理的建议,感谢,接受提问
以下是一些总结部分可能会用到的表达
所以你可以用以下方式结束:
  • 强而有力的结束语(简短,但是高度总结主旨)
  • 一个对未来的推测(可以用一个画面来体现)
  • 一个较为深思的问题+thank u for your attention
以下是结尾段可以用上的短语:
summing up 总结
To conclude,...
In conclusion,...
Now, to sum up...
So let me summarize/recap what I've said.
Finally, may I remind you of some of the main points we've considered.
  • Giving recommendations 提供建议
In conclusion, my recommendations are...
I therefore suggest/propose/recommend the following strategy.
  • Thanking your audience 感谢你的听众
Many thanks for your attention.
May I thank you all for being such an attentive audience.

3.在Questions 提问部分
It may be helpful for you to try to predict what questions will be asked so that you can prepare your response in advance. You may wish to accept questions at any time during your presentation, or to keep a time for questions after your presentation. Normally, it's your decision, and you should make it clear during the introduction. Be polite with all questioners, even if they ask difficult questions. Sometimes you can reformulate a question. Or answer the question with another question. Or even ask for comment from the rest of the audience.
对于这个的准备只有靠你对自己演讲稿的熟悉程度和思考广度啦(这也是为什么每个presentation都要阅读大量资料的原因)~在准备阶段时候多问问自己,what?why?how?
但也可以事先准备一些问题的答案。你可以在presentation的任何一个过程中接受提问,但是应该事先向观众表达清楚。即使面对相对困难或刁钻的问题,也要礼貌回应,你可以重新组织一个问题,把提问引到你熟悉的领域,也可以用其它问题的答案回答不同的问题。征求一下台下观众的看法也是可行的。
 
这里有一些 Inviting questions 鼓励大家来提问
Now I'll try to answer any questions you may have.
Can I answer any questions?
Are there any questions?
Do you have any questions?
Are there any final questions?



4. 实例对比 【市场营销-Persona】
话题:向Gemma(人名)介绍Persona的定义以及其作用。
  • 普通版Presentation
I will introduce the persona(消费者人像,一个商科术语) part for Gemma, as she’s kind of interested in this and surely this marketing method could help her business in some perspectives.
 
Firstly, bury that in mind that persona is a fictitious person representing a targeted customer group. That means companies need to create the persona through their own hand based on the analyses of target customers. It is an effective way to transfer abstract notions into concrete interpretation through visualizing who the customer really is. Also, persona often creates reflections of customers’ demand and then enhances digital marketing strategy, such as positioning (Chaffey, 2010).
 
However, when it comes to persona, as Manning suggests (2003), companies need to be careful because it might create the unnecessary bias for customers. What’s more, it can be difficult to measure a broad range of audience and gather information through marketing research.
 
As a result, although persona is a quite appropriate business approach, we suggest Gemma would place more emphasis on it at later stages of her business.
 
解析:这是一个典型中国同学的演讲内容,通过一些特定词汇可以看得出来,比如What ‘smore以及Firstly。当然,该同学的演讲稿内容是OK的,因为他了解自己的观众,并且让自己的词汇达到了观众能够理解的范围(特别是商科里面的一些属于,比如target customers group, positioning等等)。
 
但是,这个演讲只是一次“普通”的演讲。之所以定义这个演讲是普通的,是因为整体演讲过于平铺直叙,没有起承转合,也没有想要去抓住观众的注意力。纯粹在表达着自己的观点,却忽略了与观众的交流。同时,他也犯了一个大家很容易犯的错误,就是将演讲理解成了口头叙述的论文,这个是可以从里面的“as Manning suggests (2003)”,这样的citation 出现在论文里没有问题,但是如果演讲者将这句话说出来,就有点呆呆的感觉。引用的学术文献在演讲中只需要附在最后一张幻灯片里即可。
 
  • 进阶版Presentation
So, we are aware that you’re looking into gaining a better understanding of what a persona actually consists of in the business world. A simple definition would be that a persona is a fictitious person (or group of people) representing a targeted customer group for a business.
 
Companies will create a persona in accordance with the type of business they operate and by analyzing its target customers. It can be an effective way for companies to visualize and really understand who their customers are.
 
Personas can also form a representation of customers’ demand: This can facilitate the digital marketing strategy, for instance in its target segment positioning (Chaffey, 2010).
 
However, when it comes to personas, companies need to be careful because it might create an unnecessary bias regarding their potential customers. Furthermore, it can also be difficult to precisely measure a broad range of a customer base and gather all the information through market research.
 
As a result, although creating personas can be an efficient business approach, we suggest that you place more emphasis on this at a later stage of the business and for now, focus your energy and time on other business tasks. www.sblunwen.com
 
解析:这一个进阶版可以明显感觉得到与观众互动的意思。第一句“we’re aware that you’re…”就能够实现之前所说的构建与观众的无形交流桥。同时,进阶版的层次更加分明,逻辑更加清晰。虽然普通版用了Firstly之类的关联词,但是层次感还是缺乏了一点。
 
P.S 其实这两个版本都是小编自己写的演讲稿,普通版是小编的第一稿,进阶版是小编在改了三次之后的最终定稿。这里想要强调的还是proof reading 的重要性,你在每一次完成一个演讲稿以后你都需要进行proof reading。看看自己的演讲内容是否符合咱们之前讨论过的要求,同时还要结合具体的演讲题目进行校对。否则,可能就会出现普通稿子里面的一些小问题。


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