多元系统理论视角下《呐喊》两英译本的语言学对比研究

来源: www.sblunwen.com 发布时间:2019-03-27 论文字数:35855字
论文编号: sb2019030813492725310 论文语言:English 论文类型:硕士毕业论文
本文是一篇语言学论文,本文以多元系统理论为研究视角,择取杨宪益、戴乃迭夫妇与莱尔的两个《呐喊》英译本为研究对象,采用描述性、对比分析的方法。
本文是一篇语言学论文,笔者希望本研究能为今后《呐喊》的英译研究提供一定的借鉴和参考,进一步加快中国文学走出去的步伐。

Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1 Research Background
As the “Father of Modern Chinese Literature”, Lu Xun plays an important role not only inthe history of Chinese fiction but also in the history of Chinese literature. In 1918, Lu Xunpublished the first vernacular novel in the history of Chinese fiction in New Youth. That is“Diary of a Madman”, which ushered a new era in the history of Chinese fiction. With deepthought, vivid language style and strong realism, his fiction has laid a solid foundation inmodern Chinese literature. In recent years, Lu Xun literature has attracted the scholars’ greatattention become the focus of their research. As an essential component of Lu Xun literature,Lu Xun’s novels and their English versions play more and more important role under thebackground of Chinese culture and Chinese literature “going out” strategy. According to thecurrent statistics, so far, there are 18 domestic and foreign translators who have translated LuXun’s novels into English. Some of these versions have been published in domestic or foreignnewspapers, or in form of translation.
Reviewing the history of the English translation versions of Na Han, the most influentialversions are translated by two groups of translators: one group is Chinese scholar Yang Xianyiand Gladys Yang, and the other group is American scholar William A Lyell. As the mostcomprehensive and influential versions of Na Han, these two versions have provided excellentmaterial for translation studies. With different cultural, educational and times background, YangXianyi and Gladys Yang and William A Lyell translate Na Han for different purposes. Therefore,it is necessary to pay much attention to other elements besides the texts while carrying out thiscomparative study, for example, the social and cultural elements both in source language andtarget language. This thesis will apply polysystem theory to the two influential English versionsof Na Han which are respectively translated by Yang Xianyi and Gladys Yang from theperspective of language and culture.
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1.2 Research Significance
According to the Polysystem theory proposed by Even-Zohar in the early 1970s, varioussocial symbols should be regarded as a multi-layered, multiple, open and dynamic system ratherthan a static, closed mixture of unrelated elements. The Polysystem theory provides amacroscopic, descriptive, functional and systematic perspective for conducting translation researches. It helps researchers to understand the literary translation from a wilder and broadersocial and historical background, shows the researchers the cultural factors behind thetranslation process, which broadens the field of translation study by expanding the text-orientedtranslation study to the social-cultural scope.
Calculated from a conclusive writing record, the history of translation study has beenlasted for one to two thousand years. However, the domestic translation study focuses on thetext-oriented translation, always dealing with the problems of translators’ qualification andability. The polysystem theory shifts the focus of translation study from the internal elements oftext to the external elements of text. It advocates to weaken the value judgement in the researchprocess, that’s to say, it no longer takes the advantages and disadvantages in translation as thesole focus, but emphasizes the differences between criticism and research. The former belongsto applied research, which focuses on the guidance for translation practice while the latter is adescriptive study, which pays more attention on the description, revelation and understandingfor translation practice and it is a pure academic research. Actually this is the deficient part ofdomestic translation studies, so it has a great research value.
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Chapter 2 Literature Review

2.1 Previous Studies on Polysystem Theory
The polysystem theory was put forward by Evan-Zohar in the early 1970s. It has attractedgreat attention among the scholars in the western world. However, due to the specific nationalconditions, the polysystem theory was introduced into China until the early 20thcentury. Thefollowing parts will make a detailed introduction to the research of polysystem theory abroadand at home.
2.1.1Previous Studies on Polysystem Theory Abroad
Enlightened by Russian Formalism, General System and Prague Structuralism Theory, theIsraelite scholar Itamar Evan Zohar proposed the polysystem theory in the early 1970s, whichhad aroused great interest of numerous scholars and most of them carried out the related studiesfrom the following three directions: evaluating the contributions and limitations of thepolysystem theory represented by Edwin Gentzler, Jermy Mundy, Theo Herman; directlyapplying it into translation research based on the framework of polysystem theory representedby Gideon Toury as well as attempting it to solve the weaknesses of the theory represented byJose Lambert, Andre Lefevere.
Edwin Gentzler explained the advantages and disadvantages of the theory in detail. In hisopinion, the polysystem theory combines the literature study with the social, historical andcultural forces in history instead of the former pure literature study, that’s to say, it integratestranslation studies into a broader and wilder social and cultural background. Besides, he thinksEven-Zohar abandons the traditional isolated texts studies and puts translation studies under thecultural and literal systems. Meanwhile, he also outlines several problems of the theory andgives some constructive suggestions. Firstly, this theory tends to overgeneralize the universallaws only based on little evidence, so he suggests that the extensive study on textual andcultural elements should be given much attention. Secondly, the theory overly depends on theformalist framework in the 1920s and some of the concepts are not appropriate for thetranslation texts in the 1970s. Thirdly, Zohar tends to focus on the hypothetical structuralmodels and abstract models rather than relates the texts and translators to the real conditions.Lastly, the scientificity of the cited examples still need to be tested.
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2.2 Previous Studies on Two English Versions of Na Han
In this part, the author of this thesis firstly makes a brief introduction to the storiescollected in Na Han. And then the author describes the research status of the two differentEnglish versions of Na Han at home, in which the characteristics of these two English versionsand some basic information about these translators are explained in detailed.
2.2.1A Brief Introduction of Na Han
Honored as the “Father of Modern Chinese Literature”, Lu Xun’s representative workDairy of a Madman is regarded as the first vernacular novel in modern Chinese literary history,which has made a profound influence for New Literature Movement. Representing the highestachievements of Chinese fictions at that time, Na Han has established a firm foundation formodern Chinese literature and ushered in a new era for the development of Chinese novels. LuXun’s short stories not only contain profound thoughts, extremely high artistic value but alsoembody a thorough innovation, including a large number of Chinese traditional ideology,religious customs as well as unique lifestyles, forms and habits. This kind of culturalinformation has played a quite important status and influence in cross-culture communication.
Among all his great works, Na Han will be introduced in detail here because it is the mainresearch subject of this thesis. It is one of the collections of his stories published by BeijingXinchao Press in 1923 and includes 14 short stories which is written by Lu Xun from 1918 to1922. There are: A Madman’s Diary, Kong Yiji, Medicine, Tomorrow, A Small Incident, TheStory of Hair, Storm in a Teacup, My Old Home, The Ture Story of Ah Q, The Double FifthFestival, The White Light,The Rabbits and the Cat, The Comedy of the Ducks, Village Opera.Na Han vividly describes the social life from the 1911 Revolution to May Fourth Movement,and it exposes various deep social contradictions from the angle of revolutionary democratismin order to fiercely attack and completely negate the old Chinese traditional thoughts, customs,and culture in the feudal society lasted more than two thousand years, showing a strongsuffering consciousness and a strong desire for social change.
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Chapter 3Theoretical Framework: Polysystem Theory.......................19
3.1Introduction to Polysystem Theory..................................19
3.2The Main Concepts of Polysystem Theory........................20
Chapter 4 Comparative Analysis of the Two English Versions of Na Han..................... 23
4.1Comparative Analysis of the Selection of the Source Texts in Terms of System..................... 23
4.1.1Yang Xianyi’s Selection of the Source Text..................... 23
4.1.2 Lyell’ s Selection of the Source Text............ 25
Chapter 5 Conclusion........................53
5.1 Major Findings of the Study............................. 53
5.2 Limitations of the Study.............................54

Chapter 4 Comparative Analysis of the Two English Versions ofNa Han

4.1Comparative Analysis of the Selection of the Source Texts in Termsof System
Various social symbols such as language, literature, economics, politics and ideologyshould be regarded as a polysystem with some kind of internal connection. These systemsintersect and overlap with each other, but they are interdependent and operate as an organizedwhole. The translators’ selection of the source texts are largely influenced by these variousfactors in these systems. However, the influence of these factors have different emphasis fordifferent translators.
4.1.1Yang Xianyi’s Selection of the Source Text
Yang Xianyi’s selection of the Na Han is determined by many factors, which can beclassified into two categories. One is Yang Xianyi’s own love on traditional Chinese culture andgreat thought of Lu Xun. The other category can be interpreted as the historical background atthat time. Comparatively speaking, his selection is largely affected by the latter.
From the founding of new China in 1949 to 1950, the communist party of China focusedon the practical work of rebuilding devastated motherland, and carried out a relatively low-keypolicies in the field of ideology and culture. Basically in accordance with the provision of thecommon programme, that is, setting up the concept of serving people while fighting against,criticizing the feudal, fascism thoughts in public. Also, organizing relevant people to study andfamiliarize with the principles and policies of the communist party of China in order to achievethe most important purpose of recognizing and supporting the communist party in politics.Besides, it stresses that China is now in the new democracy construction period rather thanrealizing socialism, so it is necessary to distinguish the difference between the communist theory, methods and the new democratic principles used for the construction of the wholenational culture. Of course, When cleaning and criticizing the feudalism, fascist thoughts, it isnot impossibly involved in propagandizing and applying marxism. As mentioned earlier,criticism requires weapon. Lu Xun, as the spokesperson of the people especially the miserableand oppressed masses of workers and peasants, appears in the view of the ruling party at theright time and right place with his resistant and struggling spirit.
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Chapter 5 Conclusion

5.1 Major Findings of the Study

reference(omitted)

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