家庭语言政策视角下河南桐柏话的使用及变化个案探讨

论文价格:150元/篇 论文用途:硕士毕业论文 Master Thesis 编辑:vicky 点击次数:
论文字数:52444 论文编号:sb2021091513561138152 日期:2021-09-27 来源:硕博论文网
通过研究,我们可以发现河南桐柏方言在城市家庭的年轻一代中正面临着消失的危机,在农村地区,尤其是年轻一代,正在失去一些特色和原有的表达方式。此外,使用河南桐柏方言的地区正在缩小。可以推测,随着城市化的发展,越来越多的人对家乡方言不太重视,甚至失去了家乡方言。

Chapter One Introduction

1.1 Research background
Family  is  the  starting  point  of  human  language  acquisition,  the  place  where human  use  language  for  the  longest  time,  and  the  last  bastion  of  human  language maintenance  and  survival.  In  recent  years,  research  on  family  language  policy  has attracted  increasing  attention  of  domestic  and  foreign  academic  world,  and  family language  policy  has  also  become  an  important  field  of  language  policy  research (Sposky,  2004,  2012).  It  was  first  proposed  by  Cooper  who  assumed  that  language planning  can  be  explored  not  only  at  the  macro  level,  but  also  at  the  micro  level (Cooper, 1989). According to King et al. (2008), it “provides an integrated overview of  research  on  how  languages  are  managed,  learned  and  negotiated  within  families” (2008: 907). He also explains language use in families can be conceptualized in terms of  Spolsky’s(2004)  tripartite  model  of  language  policy:  language  ideologies  (what family members think about language), language practices (what family members do with  language),  and  language  management:  the  interface  between  the  previous  two (attempts  to  influence  language  use).  Although  the  study  of  family  linguistic  policy has not been carried out for a long time, it covers a wide range of areas and still has many  dimensions  to  explore,  such  as  the  role  of  the  family  in  home  language maintenance;  intra-family  factors  related  to  FLP;  relationship  between  family language  ideology,  family  language  practice  and  management;  the  interaction  with macro factors; multilingual immigrant families; the challenges of FLP; methodologies of FLP research and other perspectives. 
Henan,  as  the  national  political,  cultural  and  economic  center  for  almost  three thousand years in the Chinese five-thousand-year history, is an important birthplace of Chinese nation and Chinese civilization. As an important carrier of the culture, Henan dialect has a long historical origin and profound cultural connotation, which plays an important  role  in  the  development  and  inheritance  of  the  central  plain  culture. However,  Henan  dialect  shows  a  gradual  weakening  trend  in  recent  years.  Many young  people  seldom  speak  dialects  and  some  even  don’t  know  how  to  say  them, especially in big cities. 
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1.2 Aims of the research
The primary purpose of the research is to make a deep investigation about Henan Tongbai dialect usage and its intergenerational change from the perspective of family language  policy  in  rural  and  urban  Tongbai  families.  To  be  more  specific,  this research  attempts  to  clearly  present  Henan  Tongbai  dialect  situation,  compare  the different use of the dialect between rural and urban Tongbai families, and analyze the formation  reasons  and  its  developing  trends  in  term  of  language  ideology,  language management and language practice in urban and rural Tongbai families. Based on the investigation, implications and suggestions may be obtained on Henan Tongbai dialect protection  and  transmission.  To  achieve  this  goal,  the  following  questions  are  to  be explored in terms of family language policy: 
1.  What  is  the  current  situation  of  Henan  Tongbai  dialect  used  for  the  daily communication in urban and rural families?
2. What are the differences of Henan Tongbai dialect use in the urban and rural families?
3.  How  does  the  use  of  Henan  Tongbai  dialect  change  between  different generations in the urban and rural families?
4. What are the factors leading to the intergenerational change of Henan Tongbai people using their dialect? 5.  What  implications  may  we  get  from  the  research  about  the  protection  of Henan Tongbai dialect?
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Chapter Two Literature Review

2.1 Studies of Henan Tongbai dialect
This section gives a brief survey of dialects study in China, introduces study on Henan dialects and analyzes the role of of Tongbai dialect in Henan dialects study.
2.1.1 A brief survey of dialects study in China
Language faithfully reflects the culture, ideology, history, entertainment. It is the reflection of thought and emotion, but also influences the thoughts and emotion. As a kind of language variety, dialect is also the carrier of culture and thoughts and serves as the tool of communication. On the other hand, different from the common national language,  it  possesses  its  own  unique  features  and  value,  and  its  formation  and characteristics  are  closely  related  to  the  natural  environments,  including  the  climate, topography, soil and crops, and social environment, such as custom, lifestyle, religion and  administrative  division.  Therefore,  the  dialect  is  of  great  linguistic,  cultural  and emotional value. 
The research of Chinese dialect has a long history, which dates from the Western Han Dynasty. However, as an independent scientific discipline, the studies on Chinese dialect began in the 1920s. Its development course can be divided into four stages: the initial  period  of  Chinese  dialectology(1928-1949),  specialization  period(1950-1978), boom period(1979-2004) and diversification period(2005-now).(Xie Liuwen, 2019) 
As  Beijing  university  established  dialect  survey  committee  in  January  1924,  a group of scholars with modern linguistic theory and technological literacy, headed by Zhao Yuanren, starting from Zhao Yuanren’s survey of modern Wu dialect, carried out a  series  of  dialect  researches,  including  dialect  survey  in  Guangdong  Province, Guangxi  Province,  southern  part  of  Shanxi  Province,  Jiangxi  Province, HunanProvince,  Hubei  Province,  Yunnan  Province,  Sichuan  Province  and  other regions,  and  published  some  influential  books,  which  provided  a  number  of unprecedented  reliable  data  for  the  Chinese  dialect  research,  made  us  have  a  clear understanding  of  the  categories  and  characteristics  on  modern  Chinese  dialects  and also  laid  a  preliminary  foundation  for  the  comprehensive  development  of  modern Chinese dialect study.(Zhan Bohui,1999) The survey in this period are mainly focused on the phonetics. 
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2.2 Studies of Family Language Policy
This  section  makes  a  comprehensive  review  on  Family  Language  Policy  study abroad and at home from different perspectives.
2.2.1 Family Language Policy study abroad
The  study  on  family  language  policy  (thereafter,  FLP)  abroad  presents  an increasing  trend  since  it  is  defined  in  recent  years  in  both  the  quantity  and  quality, covering  more  family  types  and  more  areas;  and  also  investigating  more  detailed perspectives and in-depth themes. 
First, the study on FLP can be classified into  FLP on transnational families and non-transnational families, according to the family type. With the globalization, there are  growing  immigrant  families  and  transnational  marriages  all  over  the  world. Consequently,  questions  like  which  language  to  choose,  which  context  certain language  are  used  and  how  to  maintain  minority  language  and  become  bilingual  or multilingual  are  presented  in  these  families.  Transnational  family  can  be sub-classified into family where two parents immigrate to another country and family where one of the parent is native speaker, while another is not. Such situation leads to multilingual  home  environment  and  inconsistent  language  usage  between  home, school  community  and  other  places.  Curdt-Christiansen(2009)  examined  the  family language  policy  in  ten  Chinese  immigrant  families  in  Quebec,  Canada,  where  three  languages,  Chinese,  English,  and  French  are  used  within  the  family;  the  case  of French heritage speakers living in the UK were analyzed through the eyes of bilingual children  by  Wilson(2020);  Srhir(2020)  examined  how  to  make  children  multilingual in transnational Moroccan families in Spain by analyzing different cases of language transmission;  Fogle(  2013)  investigated  how  U.S.  transnational  adoptive  parents planned  and  developed  their  family  language  policy  for  their  school-age,  native Russian-speaking  adoptees;  Kaveh(2018)  described  how  to  maintain  Persian  in  a group  of  second-generation  Iranian  immigrant  children  in  different  parts  of  the Northeast  United  States  in  terms  of  family  language  practices,  beliefs,  and management.  There  is  also  a  systematic  literature  review  of  transnational  family language policy made by Hirsch & Lee(2018 ).
Table 3.1 Basic Information of Rural Family Members
Table 3.1 Basic Information of Rural Family Members
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Chapter Three Methodology .................................. 29
3.1 Participants .................................... 29
3.2 Methods............................... 32
Chapter Four Results and Discussion ................................................... 37
4.1 Current situation of Henan Tongbai dialect use ........................... 37
4.1.1 Henan Tongbai dialect use in the urban family ..................................... 37
4.1.2 Henan Tongbai dialect use in rural family ............................................ 42
Chapter Five Conclusion .................................... 71
5.1 Research findings .................................... 71
5.2 Implications for the protection of Henan Tongbai dialect ............ 73
5.3 Limitations of the research .............................. 75

Chapter Four Results and Discussion

4.1 Current situation of Henan Tongbai dialect use
This  section  describes  Henan  Tongbai  dialect  use  in  the  urban  family  and  rural family  and  compares  similarities  and  differences  of  Henan  Tongbai  dialect  use between the urban and rural families.
4.1.1 Henan Tongbai dialect use in the urban family
In the urban family, the whole family is not living together nowadays but in two neighborhoods in Zhengzhou. U1 and U2 live in a neighborhood, while U3, U4, U5 and  U6  live  in  another  neighborhood.  Before  going  to  primary  school,  U5  has  been taken care by U1 in day time. The second generation and third generation now go to see  the  first  generation  every  two  or  three  weeks.  In  modern  Chinese  society,  it  is common that the young generation and the older generation are living independently due to different lifestyles and living habits.
U1 can speak Tongbai dialect and a little mandarin which is not standard and is learned in the interaction with some non-Henan dialect speakers in the city. When she was  in  the  primary  school,  the  teacher  did  not  speak  mandarin.  She  speaks  Henan Tongbai dialect to U2, U3, U4, U5 and U6. She uses Tongbai dialect most of time but her  dialect  has  changed  a  lot,  compared  to  before,  since  she  is  living  in  Zhengzhou now, the capital of Henan province, where people are from different areas all over the country. Many mandarin expressions are added in her dialect and some original words in  Tongbai  dialect  are  abandoned.  Henan  Tongbai  dialect  is  the  primary  and  main language  she  use  to  speak  with  other  people,  including  familiar  ones  or  unfamiliar ones  like  people  in  the  market  or  in  the  street.  She  will  try  to  use  her  non-standard mandarin  to  communicate  with  others,  when  they  can’t  understand  her,  mainly non-Henan  people.  When  her  grandsons  or  others  speak  mandarin  to  her,  she  can understand most of them.
Table 3.2 Basic Information of Urban Family Members
Table 3.2 Basic Information of Urban Family Members
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Chapter Five Conclusion

5.1 Research findings
Through  the  careful  observation  of  language  use  in  the  two  rural  and  urban families, and the in-depth interviews with the different generations of the two families,  research results and conclusions of Henan Tongbai dialect use and change are found out as follows: 
First, urban family and rural family who initially are both Henan Tongbai dialect speakers present different situations of language practice, and different generations in the two families have different language ability. In urban family, the first generation mainly use dialect, speaking non-standard mandarin occasionally outside. The second generation,  bilingual  of  mandarin,  Henan  Tongbai  dialect,  knowing  about  a  little English, mainly speak mandarin to children, colleagues, friends, while they use Henan Tongbai  dialect  when  communicating  with  the  first  generation,  the  other  second generation, people and relatives in the hometown or other people who  first initiate a conversation in dialect; the third generation no longer speak dialect, and they mainly use  mandarin  and  speak  English  in  English  class  as  foreign  language.  In  the  rural family,  the  first  and  second  generation  could  only  speak  Henan  Tongbai  dialect;  the third  generation  use  dialect  as  the  main  communicative  language,  only  speak non-standard  mandarin  in  other  provinces  for  doing  business  and  on  some  formal occasions, like school; the fourth generation who could speak fluent dialect, standard mandarin  but  unskilled  English,  use  Henan  Tongbai  dialect  mainly  at  home  and  in hometown  but  tend  to  use  mandarin  most  of  time  on  other  occasions;  the  fifth generation  could  speak  a  few  words  in  these  three  languages  during  the  process  of learning to speak. 
Secondly,  there  are  intergenerational  differences  or  changes  towards  Henan Tongbai dialect between the two families in terms of FLP. In urban family, the Henan Tongbai dialect practice presents a sharp decreasing trend, with the eldest generation using it most of time but the youngest generation abandoning speaking it. At the same time, their attitudes towards it differ a lot between generations, from the intense love of the first generation to the uselessness of the second generation to the unfamiliarity and no emotion of the third generation, which shows a gradual negative ideology. As the  main  family  language  planners,  the  second  generation  pay  more  attention  to mandarin and English, but ignore the Tongbai dialect. In rural family, Henan Tongbai dialect  is  well  inherited,  with  all  the  members  speaking  Henan  Tongbai  dialect  at home,  but  some  dialect  expressions  are  replaced  by  mandarin.  And  the  younger generations  tend  to  master  more  languages.  As  for  language  ideology,  the  elder generation  pay  more  attention  to  dialect,  while  the  younger  generation  give  more focus  on  mandarin  and  English,  although  they  all  recognize  the  importance  of  these three languages. The first, second and third generation have relatively weak language management.
reference(omitted)

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