《我们的星球》解说词的生态话语分析

论文价格:300元/篇 论文用途:硕士毕业论文 Master Thesis 编辑:vicky 点击次数:
论文字数:56966 论文编号:sb2021091814054038212 日期:2021-10-02 来源:硕博论文网
通过定性分析,详细讨论了我们这个星球所蕴含的生态思想。本节将首先总结当前研究的主要发现。然后,讨论本研究的局限性。最后,对未来的研究提出建议。

Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1 Research Background
Looking  back  at  the  progress  human  has  created  during  the  last  one  century,  we sadly find that our life is seriously marred by the relationship between human and other species. Overwhelming oppression and cruelty has led myriads of animals to the end of their life and catastrophes resulted from human activities are now totally unprecedented. Population increase, climate change, reduction in biodiversity, isolation with nature and loss  of  community  are  bringing  questions  into  the  fundamental  stories  which  the industrial society depends on (Stibbe, 2015: 3). By the time of the 1960s, the growth of population and the rapid development of economics have caused an increasing number of ecological  problems.  So,  it  is  necessary  to  reconsider  the  relationship  between  humans and other species, the significance of linguistic mediation, and the crucial effects this can have.
With  the  promotion  of  ecological  awareness,  there  occurs  an  ecological  turn  in scientific  research,  including  the  linguistic  studies.  Eco-linguistics  is  one  representative way  to  show  the  combination  between  ecology  and  linguistics  which  will  receive  more attention from language researchers. Michael Halliday’s constructivism view of language believes  that  we  can  modify  our  world  through  the  language  we  use.  That  is  to  say, language  plays  an  important  role  in  solving  ecological  crisis.  The  origin  of  ecological crisis is a crisis of culture and ideology instead of scientific and technological crisis. Thus, the most vital tasks at present is to set up and disseminate the ecological world view and values  among  people.  Besides,  on  the  way  of  probing  methods  to  the  ecological challenges  we  face,  we  may  have  to  explore  and  reconsider  some  of  the  rudimentary stories that underlie our culture (Stibbe, 2015), which indicates the relationship between humans and animals, plants as well as other non-human creatures, and what kind of role we human plays in the story should also be taken into consideration. Since 1990s, more and  more  linguists  have  been  devoting  themselves  to  finding  a  linguistic  way  to contribute  to  alleviating  the  world  ecological  crisis.  Recently,  a  goodly  number  of methods and abundant data have been taken to show how language has been articulated and  deciphered  in  the  environment  and  ecology  fields.  Xin  Zhiying  &  Huang  Guowen (2013) note that it is the social responsibility of systematic functional linguists to convey ecological  consciousness.  Later,  a  branch  of  those  linguists  attempt  to  investigate  the ecological  problems  in  language  within  the  domain  of  Ecological  Discourse  Analysis (EDA).
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1.2 Research Objective
This  thesis  conducts  an  ecological  discourse  analysis  of  the  commentary  of  Our Planet, with two purposes. On the one hand, this thesis attempts to enrich the analytical method of EDA and to uncover deep ecological thoughts contained in the commentary by using  linguistic  devices.  On  the  other  hand,  it  aims  to  activate  the  human  beings’ ecological  thinking—how  to  use  language  to  establish  better  ecological  harmony  or equilibrium between human beings and the nature and foster their ecologically protective behaviors.
There are two significances of this research.
The  first  one  is  theoretical  significance.  Different  from  the  previous  studies  of  ecological  documentary  from  the  perspective  of  discourse  strategies  and  systemic functional  grammar,  this  research  uses  EDA  to  analyze  the  commentary  of  ecological documentary Our Planet. Thus, the research may fill the insufficiency of previous studies, widen the application of EDA and fulfill the theoretical research of EDA.
The  second  one  is  practical  significance.  Practically,  this  thesis  may  help  to  better understand  the  ecological  value  of  the  commentary  in  ecological  documentary  Our Planet, enhance peoples’ ecological awareness so as to protect the home of all species on the planet.
Ecolinguistics  is  a  profitable  way  for  human  beings  to  protect  the  environment through  language.  Researchers  have  made  some  contributions  to  ecological  discourse analysis  from  different  perspectives.  The  study  of  the  ecological  documentary  from  the perspective  of  ecological  discourse  analysis  is  relatively  few.  Different  from  other theories,  EDA  has  its  special  theoretical  significance  in  the  analysis  of  documentary discourses, which provides a new perspective for our study on this kind of discourse. On the  one  hand,  this  study  is  able  to  help  human  beings  comprehend  ecological  and environmentally  friendly  ideology  better  from  the  commentary.  On  the  other  hand,  it detects ecological ideologies in Our Planet, which can lead a ecological way to coexist with nature, foster people’s ecological behaviors.
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Chapter 2 Literature Review

2.1 Review on Ecological Documentary
This section gives the definition and features of ecological documentary firstly, then reviews  former  studies  on  ecological  documentary.  In  the  end,  it  introduces  the ecological documentary Our Planet in detail.
2.1.1 Introduction to Ecological Documentary
Ecological  documentary  is  a  vital  branch  of  documentary  film  on  the  basis  of  the theme  and  topic,  but  there  is  no  unified  definition  in  the  academic  research.  Scientific documentary,  human  geography  documentary  and  natural  documentary  are  alternative names for ecological documentary. Some scholars tries to define it from its content and function.  Ecological  documentary  records  certain  facts  and  reality  about  the  natural world,  mainly  assuming  the  functions  of  education,  instruction  or  promotion  (Hornby, 2005:  589).  “Ecological  documentary  is  designed  to  cultivate  the  consciousness  of ecological  protection  by  truly  recording  the  relationship  and  interaction  among  nature, human  beings,  animals  and  plants”  (Wu,  2006).  In  a  general  way,  ecological documentary  pays  much  more  attention  on  the  survival  and  the  growth  of  species,  the relationship  between  species  or  between  species  and  environment,  the  interaction between human being and nature (Chang, 2014). Nature documentary as a form of mass media is committed to depicting current ecological state or survival and development of other  species  in  nature  and  the  relationships  among  species,  humans  and  physical environment  by  means  of  vivid  scenes,  lively  words  and  soul-stirring  music,  through which  ecological  thoughts  shall  be  conveyed  so  as  to  urge  people  to  protect  ecological system and live harmoniously with nature (Yuan, 2020). Based on the above conceptions, it can be concluded as follows. The recording target of ecological documentary is natural world,  including  animals,  plants,  entities  and  natural  phenomena  and  etc.  It  bears  the function of education and dissemination. By using the audio-visual language, ecological documentary spreads the thoughts of protecting the ecological world.
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2.2 Review on Commentary in Ecological Documentary
There are two parts in this section. A brief introduction of ecological documentary commentary  is  given  firstly,  then  some  previous  studies  on  ecological  documentary commentary are reviewed.
2.2.1 Introduction to Commentary
Sound and images are the main methods of conveying information and emotion in the ecological documentaries. However, they can’t straightway convey some ideological and abstract conceptions straightway hidden in an ecological documentary. Commentary is  the  most  direct  and  effective  way  of  transmitting  information.  When  comes  to  the commentary of ecological documentary, many scholars have given its definition based on their related studies. As Chen Shaobo (1997) proposed, written language is too rigid and formal  while  daily  spoken  language  is  too  available  and  flexible.  The  language  of  the documentary  commentary  lies  somewhere  in  between.  It  is  the  refinement  of  the  daily linguistic language, maintaining the explicit, concise and popular traits in the meantime abandoning the disadvantages of randomness, discreteness and redundancy of daily oral language. It is a higher level of spoken language and can be regarded as the oral dynamic of literary language. Shi Qi (2000:179) argued that in a documentary, commentary refers to  the  verbal  language  except  the  screen  characters'  language.  Zhong  Danian  and  Lei Jianjun (2006: 54) believed commentary is the externalization of the composer’s rational thoughts. It is a form of communication narrated by the commentator and attached to the images. As the direct externalization of the author's rational thinking, it is used to express,explain, discuss or introduce the author's subjective emotion. 
Figure 2 Refinement of Process System
Figure 2 Refinement of Process System
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Chapter  3  Theoretical  Framework  and  Methodology……………………14
3.1  Theoretical  Framework  of  EDA……………………………………………14
3.1.1  Introduction  to  EDA…………………………14
3.1.2  Naess’s  Ecosophy…………………………………18
Chapter  4  Results  and  Discussion……………………35
4.1  Analysis  of  Eco-transitivity  Process……………………35
4.1.1  Analysis  of  Material  Process…………………………37
4.1.2  Analysis  of  Mental  Process………………………42
Chapter  5  Conclusion ………………………………72
5.1  Findings  of  the  Research…………………………72
5.2  Limitations  of  the  Research………………………75 

Chapter 4 Results and Discussion

4.1 Analysis of Eco-transitivity Process
As  is  mentioned  in  the  above  chapter,  transitivity  is  a  system  which  construes  the material world and mental world around us, and it is composed of six process types. A process unfolding through time and the participant involved in the process constitutes the core components of the figure. Visualizing the statistical distribution of the process types offers  a  perspective  to  present  how  the  events  are  advanced  in  the  commentary  of  Our Planet.
First of all, this study will show the distribution of those six process types in Table 4-1: 
Table 4-1 Distribution of Process Types
Table 4-1 Distribution of Process Types 
According  to  the  above  table,  we  can  see  that there  are  726  process  types  in  total. Among all processes, material processes account for the highest proportion—48.21% in the commentary with the total number of 350. Material process expresses that someone is doing  something  or  something  is  happening,  so  objective  behavior  or  action  is  often described by material process. As is known to us all, ecological documentary objectively records  the  relationship  and  interaction  among  human  beings,  non-human  species  and natural phenomena, so it is easy to understand why material process is frequently used in the discourse. And it also indicates the emergent ideology of celebrating the power of the nature. Next, relational processes rank in the second highest percentage, whose number is 289, accounting for 39.81% of the whole processes. The relational process is the process of presenting the relationship between two objects or the attribution and characteristics of one object, and it is usually used to describe and evaluate an object or event. As a result, relational  process  is  the  most  direct  way  of  making  judgment  and  evaluation.  In  the documentary,  this  process  type  is  mainly  distributed  in  the  following  two  situations: firstly, it is used to indicate the location; secondly, it is used to denote the special hunting skills or some features possessed by the animals and plants. Existential processes are in the third largest proportion, which account for 5.92% with 43 processes. The fourth place is  the  mental  processes  whose  number  adds  up  to  31,  accounting  for  4.27%.  The behavioral  processes  rank  the  fifth  in  number  with  the  proportion  of  1.79%.  As  for  the verbal  process,  it  refers  to  the  process  of  communicating  information  though  speech events, typically for human beings. Therefore, it is reasonable to comprehend that verbal process types are scarcely used in the ecological documentary. 
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Chapter 5 Conclusion

5.1 Findings of the Research
Displaying a real natural world is the primary mission of ecological documentaries, and  they  also  take  on  the  responsibilities  of  conveying  the  ecological  thoughts.  Commentary  plays  an  indispensable  role  in  the  ecological  documentary.  Under  the framework  of  EDA,  this  study  explores  the  ecological  thoughts  in  the  commentary  of Our Planet. With detailed analysis and discussion, this research arrives at the following findings.
Firstly, in terms of transitivity process, the commentary represents the eco-beneficial inclination  of  process  meaning.  As  for  the  realization  of  transitivity  process,  different processes  perform  different  functions  to  convey  ecological  thoughts.  In  the  ecological documentary Our Planet, the use of material process and relational process far outweighs the  other  processes  in  the  transitivity  system,  which  is  determined  by  its  theme  and linguistic  feature.  In  order  to  highlight  informative  function  of  ecological  documentary, Our  Planet  describes  a  real  life  of  other  species  and  physical  entities,  as  well  as  the interactions among humans, other creatures and physical environment in nature, which is delivered  by  material  process.  To  achieve  publicity  function,  Our  Planet  depicts  and characteristics  and  attributes  of  animals,  plants  and  physical  phenomena,  as  well  as  the relationships among them, which is embodied by relational process. Then, the frequency of  existential  process  ranks  the  second  place,  followed  by  mental  process.  Existential processes  in  Our  Planet  show  the  audience  what  happens  in  nature  and  how  the  living organisms  and  physical  participants  exist  in  nature.  Mental  processes  mainly  represent conscious activities of creatures in nature, and slightly declare people’s attitudes toward nature  as  well.  The  number  of  behavioral  process  comes  in  last  at  5th  in  transitivity process, which largely describe living habits and behavior of beings in nature. There is no verbal process in the documentary.
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