网购消费者负面评论中不礼貌策略探讨

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论文字数:42515 论文编号:sb2021092115321938262 日期:2021-10-06 来源:硕博论文网
本文以网上消费者的负面评论为语料,旨在对不礼貌进行研究,其意义如下:首先,通过调查网上购物消费者负面评论中使用的不礼貌策略,消费者可以更全面地了解不礼貌现象,并学会如何正确使用不礼貌策略。在未来的网络购物中,消费者应该合理地管理自己的负面情绪,做一个文明的消费者。本研究还探讨了不礼貌策略使用的影响因素,这有助于在线卖家了解消费者为什么会使用一些不礼貌策略,以及如何处理负面评论中的不礼貌,以维持和谐的人际关系和未来的合作。

Chapter One Introduction
 
1.1 Background of the study
In the field of pragmatics, politeness is always a classic and widely researchtopic. Since the 1970s, the study of politeness research has aroused many scholars’attention at home and abroad (e.g., Brown and Levinson, 1978, 1987; Gu, 1990;Lakoff, 1973; Leech, 1983). Politeness refers to the words appropriately spoken bypeople, it plays an important role in coordinating the interpersonal relationshipsbetween people, for avoiding conflicts, promoting smooth communication and socialharmony. Nowadays, studies on politeness have achieved relatively remarkable results.Compared with politeness research, the impoliteness phenomena are also common inhuman communication, people sometimes need to use impolite language to expresstheir true meaning and achieve one’s aim. However, it can be found that theresearches on impoliteness are few, which are neglected by the academic circles for along time.
Therefore, due to the imbalance study between politeness and impoliteness,studies about impoliteness need to be considered and recognized. In the early studieson impoliteness, according to Brown and Levinson (1978), they believe thatimpoliteness is the parasite of politeness. Leech (1983) considers impoliteness as“marginal behavior of human normal verbal communication” (1983, p.105). Culpeper(1996) lays a solid foundation and setting a clear keynote for impoliteness research, sothe field of linguistic impoliteness has quickly developed, speeded up in themid-1990s, and started on the rise in 2008. And scholars find that except for the impoliteness in daily communication, it also plays an important role in other differentcontexts, but most of the research corpus on impoliteness comes from the discourse ofliterary works, military training, dramas, and TV programs. In recent years, with thedevelopment of the internet, and the freedom and high-efficiency of internetcommunication, there exist a large number of face-threatening behaviors and verbalimpoliteness phenomenon in the online platforms. However, studies on impolitenessdiscourses in the background of internet multimedia are fewer, and there is still a lotto be researched.
Figure 1. 1 Number of online shoppers and utilization rate from 2016 to 2020
Figure 1. 1 Number of online shoppers and utilization rate from 2016 to 2020
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1.2 Objectives of the study
The present study takes Culpeper’s impoliteness theory as the theoreticalframework for exploring impoliteness strategies used in online shopping consumers’negative reviews, and some objectives are expected to be achieved in this study.
At first, this study attempts to find what kinds of impoliteness strategies are usedin online shopping consumers’ negative reviews, and also make a detailed analysisand interpretation about them
Then, this study aims to conclude some pragmatic functions of impolitenessstrategies in online shopping consumers’ negative reviews.
Thirdly, it is hoped that some possible factors affecting the use of impolitenessstrategies can be found.
As for the theoretical significance, it is known that politeness theory and facetheory are the core of interpersonal pragmatics, and the researches studies onpoliteness are fruitful. Although impoliteness also exists commonly as well aspoliteness, its researches are comparatively few, especially the verbal impoliteness inthe internet context. Therefore, in this study, the analysis of the impolitenessphenomenon in online shopping consumers’ negative reviews can verify the universalapplicability of Culpeper’s impoliteness theory, and also attempts to find some othernew impoliteness strategies, so as to further understand the study of impoliteness.Besides, the study also explores the pragmatic functions of impoliteness strategies andsome influencing factors that cause the usage of impoliteness strategies online.
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Chapter Two Literature Review

2.1 Studies on impoliteness
This section mainly introduces the various definitions of impoliteness,classifications of impoliteness, application studies of impoliteness strategies, and thestudies on impoliteness in the CMC context from different scholars at home andabroad.
2.1.1 Definitions of impoliteness
As for impoliteness, it is a multidisciplinary study. Although there are someimpoliteness researches from different perspectives, impoliteness has no commonlyaccepted definition. That is, different scholars have different definitions ofimpoliteness, so it is hard to give a detailed and clear definition of impoliteness.
Foreign scholars have different ideas on the definition of impoliteness fromdifferent perspectives, which reflect their research emphasis. Lachenicht firstlyproposes aggravating language as impoliteness, and he defines it as the “abusive andinsulting language” (1980, p. 607). The aggravating language attempts to hurt or faceattack the hearers.
Leech (1983) maintains impoliteness as a marginal behavior of human normalverbal communication. Similarly, Beebe (1995) believes that impoliteness is theviolation of social norms behavior and it is a face-threatening act, which disobeys therecognized social norms of interaction under the social context.
Limberg (2008) holds that impoliteness is an utterance threat that goes beyondthe standards of proper behavior and it intentionally threatens each other’s face in aconfrontation. Mills (2009) maintains that impoliteness is triggered by specific eventsor words, which violates the norms of behavior of specific speech communities.
Holmes et al state that verbal impoliteness is “linguistic behavior assessed by thehearer as threatening her or his face or social identity.” (2008, p. 196). Locher andWatts (2008) note that each of such impolite terms will produce a particular kind ofnegative evaluation of behavior, which means, impoliteness is a participant’sjudgment of the appropriateness or inappropriateness of the social behavior of theco-participants in an interaction.
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2.2 Studies on online consumer reviews
Among the different sources of information available online, consumer reviewsare now widely used, online consumer reviews as a new genre which has receivedincreasing research attention. It can be regarded as the written language, Bickart andSchindler (2001) state that consumer reviews as written language from the perspectiveof consumers, that can exert influence on sellers and other consumers, so they havegreat influence. Chevalier and Mayzlin (2006) use Amazon.com and Barnes andNoble.com to find that the consumers read the text of reviews rather than relying onlyon the summary statistics. Vásquez (2014) holds that online consumer reviews nowplay an increasingly important role in influencing potential consumers when they seekinformation online, and the electronic-word of mouth (e-wom) has the characteristicsof large scale and fast transmission speed, that means, information technology enablesa single person’s opinion to immediately reach thousands or even millions ofconsumers, and the consumers are more and more relying on e-wom.
What’s more, the expression of linguistic information in reviews is also crucialbecause it can impact other potential consumers and sellers, also the language used inonline consumer reviews is still under research, many scholars begin to concern aboutwhat and how it is said in online consumer reviews. Vásquez (2011) claims thatlinguistic research inclines to concern the organizational characteristics, components and move structures in online consumer reviews, and she describes the formsinvolved in online consumer reviews’ discourse, which are the imperative sentences,first and second personal pronouns, conventional formulas, and interrogativesentences. Cao et al. (2011) maintain that semantic features are more important thanbasic and stylistic features in influencing the beneficial voting of online consumerreviews, which with extreme views garner more favorable votes than those withmixed or neutral views.
Table3. 1 Culpeper’s impoliteness strategies
Table3. 1 Culpeper’s impoliteness strategies
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Chapter Three Theoretical Framework....................................19
3.1 Face theory.......................................19
3.2 Culpeper’s impoliteness theory..............................20
Chapter Four Methodology.........................................27
4.1 Research questions.................................................27
4.2 Research methods............................................27
Chapter Five Results and Discussion................................. 30
5.1 Impoliteness strategies used in online shopping consumers’ negative reviews..................................30
5.1.1 Bald on record impoliteness strategy.............................. 32
5.1.2 Positive impoliteness strategy..............................34

Chapter Five Results and Discussio

5.1 Impoliteness strategies used in online shopping consumers’ negative reviews
According to the workable analytical framework of impoliteness strategiesbuilt-in Chapter three based on Culpeper’s impoliteness strategies. After carefullysorting and classifying the collected data, Table 5.1 presents the frequency andpercentage of impoliteness strategies used in online shopping consumers’ negativereviews. It should be noted that some online shopping consumers’ negative reviewsmay cover two or more impoliteness strategies at the same time, therefore, the totalnumber of impoliteness strategies used by the online shopping consumers adds up to824, which is greater than the collected numbers of online shopping consumers’negative reviews. And the total number is calculated by the sum of the frequency offive kinds of impoliteness strategies.
Table 5. 1 Frequency and percentage of impoliteness strategies
Table 5. 1 Frequency and percentage of impoliteness strategies
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Chapter Six Conclusion

6.1 Major findings of the study
This research mainly uses the qualitative and quantitative method to analyze thereal corpus about impoliteness phenomenon of online shopping consumers’ negativereviews. Impoliteness theory is the theoretical framework proposed by Culpeper(1996) which is applied to analyze the implementation of impoliteness strategies andthe pragmatic functions of impoliteness strategies in online shopping consumers’negative reviews. It also explores some influential factors of the usage of impolitenessstrategies, and the major findings can be summarized as follows:
At first, by analyzing the collected corpus, it is found that Culpeper’simpoliteness theory is also applicable in this study. Some impoliteness strategies arebeing applied in the online shopping consumers’ negative reviews for being impolite,which are bald on record impoliteness strategy, positive impoliteness strategy,negative impoliteness strategy, and sarcasm or mock politeness impoliteness strategy.Among these impoliteness strategies employed in the online shopping consumers’negative reviews, we find that bald on record impoliteness strategy and positiveimpoliteness strategy are the most frequently used, followed by negative impolitenessstrategy, and the sarcasm or mock politeness strategy is used least. Under the positiveimpoliteness, we find that there are seven kinds of positive impoliteness outputstrategies, which are “using taboo words”, “seeking disagreement”, “disassociatingfrom the other”, “questioning”, “cursing”, “using derogatory addressing terms”,“being disinterested, unconcerned and unsympathetic”. The strategies of“questioning”, “cursing”, “using derogatory addressing terms” are the newly foundstrategy in this study. According to their percentages, it is clear that the strategy of “using taboo words” is mostly used to express consumers’ negative emotions. Underthe negative impoliteness strategy, we can find that there are three kinds of negativeimpoliteness output strategies, which are “frightening”, “condescending, scorning andridiculing”, and “explicitly with a negative aspect”. The strategy of “frightening” isthe most used in the negative impoliteness output strategies. Overall, it seems thatmost online shopping consumers tend to express their dissatisfaction, disagree,disappoint by using bald on record impoliteness strategy to directly face-threateningshopkeepers’ face, and we also find that some adverbs of degree can exacerbate theimpoliteness tone. Besides, we find that some impoliteness strategies are used to canprotect consumers’ legal interests, and also express negative feelings of anger,disappointment, hatred and etc. While some impoliteness strategies used byconsumers will not only do harm to sellers and influence other potential consumers’purchasing decision but also threaten the sellers’ face and damage the consumers andsellers’ relationship.
reference(omitted)